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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 8, pp 6819–6830 | Cite as

Emission characteristics of VOCs from three fixed-roof p-xylene liquid storage tanks

  • Chungsying Lu
  • Hsiaoyun Huang
  • Shenteng Chang
  • Shihchieh Hsu
Article

Abstract

This study evaluates emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) caused by standing loss (L S) and working loss (L W) of three vertical fixed-roof p-xylene (p-X) liquid tanks during 1-year storage and filling operation. The annual net throughput of the tanks reached 70,446 t, resulting in 9,425 kg of p-X vapor emission including 5,046 kg of L S (53.54 %) and 4,379 kg of L W (46.46 %). The estimated L W of AP-42 displayed better agreement with the measured values of a VOC detector than the estimated L S of AP-42. The L S was best correlated with the liquid height of the tanks, while the L W was best correlated with the net throughput of the tanks. As a result, decreasing vapor space volume of the tanks and avoiding high net throughput of the tanks in a high ambient temperature period were considered as effective means to lessen VOC emission from the fixed-roof organic liquid storage tank.

Keywords

AP-42 estimation Fixed-roof storage tank p-Xylene Standing losses Working losses 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Environmental Protection Bureau, Taichung City Government, Taichung 403, Taiwan.

Glossary

D

Tank diameter (feet)

HL

Liquid height (feet)

HS

Tank shell height (feet)

HVO

Vapor space outage (feet) (=H S − H L)

I

Daily total solar radiation (British thermal unit per square feet per day)

KE

Vapor space expansion factor, dimensionless [=∆T V / T LA + (∆P V − ∆P B) / (P A − P VA)]

KN

Working loss turnover (saturation) factor, dimensionless (=1)

KP

Working loss product factor, dimensionless (for crude oils, K P = 0.75, for all other organic liquids, K P = 1)

KS

Vented vapor saturation factor, dimensionless [=1 / (1 + 0.053P VA H VO)]

LS

Standing storage loss (pounds)

LT

Total loss (pounds)

LW

Working loss (pounds)

MV

Vapor molecular weight (=106.17 lb/lb mol)

PA

Atmospheric pressure (=14.7 psia)

∆PB

Breather vent pressure setting range (pounds per square inch absolute)

∆PV

Daily vapor pressure range (pounds per square inch absolute) (=0.5 × 1474.4P VA × ∆T V / T LA 2)

PVA

Vapor pressure at average liquid surface temperature (mmHg) (log10 P VA = 7.02 − [1,474.40 / (T LA + 217.77)]), where T LA must be converted from °R to °C via [°C = (°R − 492) / 1.8]

Q

Net throughput at each filling operation (barrel) (=42 gal)

R

The ideal gas constant, 10.731 psia ft3/lb mol · °R

TAA

Daily average ambient temperature (°R)

TB

Liquid bulk temperature (°R) (=T AA + 6α − I)

TLA

Daily average liquid surface temperature (°R) (=0.44T AA + 0.56T B + 0.0079αI)

∆TA

Daily ambient temperature range (°R)

∆TV

Daily vapor temperature range (°R) (=0.72∆T A + 0.028αI)

VV

Tank vapor space volume (cubic feet) (=πD 2 H VO / 4)

WV

Stock vapor density (pond per cubic feet) (=M V P VA / RT LA)

α

Tank paint solar absorptance, dimensionless (=0.54)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chungsying Lu
    • 1
  • Hsiaoyun Huang
    • 1
  • Shenteng Chang
    • 1
  • Shihchieh Hsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichung City 402Taiwan

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