Interrelationships of pollution load index, transfer factor, and concentration factor under the effect of sludge
- 398 Downloads
A greenhouse experiment was conducted during 2010–2011. A complete randomized blocks design was used including seven treatment levels of sludge(tons per hectare), i.e., 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and “30+ treated wastewater”, in four replications. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L var longifolia) was chosen as a test plant. The purpose of the experiment was to study the relationships between soil Pollution Load Index, heavy metal transfer factor, and concentration factor and to determine optimum concentration factor values. The following were found: several mathematical relationships were established between the above parameters that could be used for the study of heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants under the effect of the applied sludge. They can be also used for the calculation of one of the above parameters as a function of the others. Based on the experimental data, the optimum concentration factor for several heavy metals were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, expressing the concentration factor as a function of the maximum dry lettuce matter yield, and of optimum/minimum heavy metal content of plant dry matter. The mean value of the calculated concentration factor obtained for each separate metal was: Zn, 2.93; Cd, 0.39; Co, 1.47; and Ni, 0.52.
KeywordsHeavy metals Lettuce Sludge treatments Soil Plant growth Pollution Load Index Transfer factor Concentration factor
- AOAC. (1996). Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Agricultural Chemists AOAC International (16th ed., pp. 2027–2417). Gaithersburg: Publication International.Google Scholar
- APHA. (1992). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. Method 3110, American Public Health Association AWWA WEF (18th ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Jackson, M. L. (1958). Soil chemical analysis (pp. 1–250). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Kalavrouziotis, I. K., & Koukoulakis, P. H. (2012). Soil pollution under the effect of treated municipal wastewater. International Journal Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184, 6297–6305. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2420-0.
- Lanyon, L. E., & Heald, W. R. (1982). Magnesium, calcium strontium, and barium. In A. L. Page et al. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis part 2 (pp. 247–262). Madison: ASA.Google Scholar
- Mills, H. A., Benton Jones Jr, J., (1996). Plant Analysis Handbook. Athens, GA: MicroMacro Publishing Inc., p. 345.Google Scholar
- Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S., & Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate, USDA Circular Number 939. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Panda, S. K., Chaudhry, I., & Khan, M. H. (2003). Heavy metals induce lipid peroxidation, and affect antioxidants in wheat leaves Biologia Plantgum 46, 289–294. doi: 10.1023/A:1022871131698.
- Richards, I. A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of alkaline and sodic soils. Agric. Handbook No 60 (p. 84). Washington DC: USDA.Google Scholar
- WHO. (1992). Cadmium, environmental health criteria. Geneva World Health Organization, 134, 1–280.Google Scholar