Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 5, pp 3637–3644 | Cite as

Extraction of ultra traces of polychlorinated biphenyls in aqueous samples using suspended liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detection



This study reports the feasibility of applying directly suspended liquid-phase microextraction (DSLPME)-gas chromatography detection for the pre-concentration and determination of low levels of eight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous samples. The technique requires minimal sample preparation, analysis time and solvent consumption and represents significant advantages over conventional analytical methods. The experimental parameters such as salt content, sample temperature, stirring rate, extraction time, micro-drop volume and breakthrough volume were investigated and found to have significant influences on DSLPME. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the enrichment factor ranged from 578 to 729, and the recovery was above 93 %. Calibration curves possessed good linearity (R 2 > 0.99) over a wide concentration range of 0.1–10.0 μg L−1 with limits of detection ranging from 0.01 to 0.07 μg L−1. The relative standard deviations for 1.0 μg L−1 of PCBs in water by using internal standard were in the range 2–14 % (n = 3). The proposed simple, accurate and sensitive analytical method was applied successfully to the determination of trace amounts of PCBs in water samples.


Poychlorinated biphenyls Suspended liquid-phase microextraction Pre-concentration Gas chromatography 



The support of this work by research grants from Tarbiat Modares University Research Council and Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryRazi UniversityKermanshahIran

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