Screening for Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants in the Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzogovina)
- 364 Downloads
The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country’s major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L−1 near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers—were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others.
KeywordsContaminated sediments SPMDs Passive sampling River monitoring Balkans
This study was funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Sediments were analysed at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). We also thank Espen Lund for technical assistance.
- Adamov, J., Vojinovic-Miloradov, M., Buzarov, D., Jovetic, S., Sudi, J., & Popovic, E. (2003). Distribution of PCBs at different levels of aquatic ecosystem in the Danube River in Vojvodina. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 12(2), 117–120.Google Scholar
- Bogdal, C., Scheringer, M., Schmid, P., Blauenstein, M., Kohler, M., & Hungerbuhler, K. (2010). Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: combining trace analysis and multimedia modelling. Science of the Total Environment, 408(17), 3654–3663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) (2002). Canadian environmental quality guidelines and summary table. Retrieved from http://www.ccme.ca/publications/ceqg_rcqe.html. Accessed 20 June 2011.
- Djedjibegovic, J., Marjanovic, A., Sober, M., Skrbo, A., Sinanovic, K., Larssen, T., Grung, M., Fjeld, E., & Rognerud, S. (2010). Levels of persistent organic pollutants in the Neretva River (Bosnia and Herzegovina) determined by deployment of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD). Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B-Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes, 45(2), 128–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Djedjibegovic, J., Larssen, T., Skrbo, A., Marjanovic, A., & Sober, M. (2012). Contents of cadmium, copper, mercury and lead in fish from the Neretva River (Bosnia and Herzegovina) determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Food Chemistry, 131, 469–476. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EU (2006). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Environmental Quality Standards in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Commission of the European Communities, COM(2006) 397 final.Google Scholar
- Evenset, A., Christensen, G. N., Skotvold, T., Fjeld, E., Schlabach, M., Wartena, E., & Gregor, D. (2003). A comparison of organic contaminants in two high arctic lake ecosystems, Bjørnøya (Bear Island), Norway. Science of the Total Environment, 318(1–3), 125–141.Google Scholar
- Franciskovic-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., & Sirac, S. (2005). Organic pollutants in stream sediments of Kupa River drainage basin. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 14(4), 282–290.Google Scholar
- Gourlay-France, C., Lorgeoux, C., & Tusseau-Vuillemin, M. H. (2008). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sampling in wastewaters using semipermeable membrane devices: accuracy of time-weighted average concentration estimations of truly dissolved compounds. Chemosphere, 73(8), 1194–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harman, C., Thomas, K. V., Tollefsen, K. E., Meier, S., Bøyum, O., & Grung, M. (2009). Monitoring the freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols (AP) around a Norwegian oil platform by holistic passive sampling. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58(11), 1671–1679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hites, R. K., & Day, H. R. (1992). Unusual persistence of DDT in some western USA soils. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 48, 259–264.Google Scholar
- Huckins, J. N., Petty, J. D., Lebo, J. A., Almeida, F. V., Booij, K., Alvarez, D. A., Clark, R. C., & Mogensen, B. B. (2002). Development of the permeability/performance reference compound approach for in situ calibration of semipermeable membrane devices. Environmental Science and Technology, 36(1), 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huckins, J. N., Petty, J. D., & Booij, K. (2006). Monitors of organic chemicals in the environment. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Parlar, H., Coelhan, M., & Ekici, P. (2004). Recent findings on polychlorinated biphenyl residues in Eastern European ecosystems. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 13(11A), 1079–1089.Google Scholar
- Short, J. W., Springman, K. R., Lindeberg, M. R., Holland, L. G., Larsen, M. L., Sloan, C. A., Khan, C., Hodson, P. V., & Rice, S. D. (2008). Semipermeable membrane devices link site-specific contaminants to effects: Part II—A comparison of lingering Exxon Valdez oil with other potential sources of CYP1A inducers in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Environmental Research, 66(5), 487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Terzic, S., Senta, I., Ahel, M., Gros, M., Petrovic, M., Barcelo, D., Muller, J., Knepper, T., Marti, I., Ventura, F., Jovanic, P., & Jabucar, D. (2008). Occurrence and fate of emerging wastewater contaminants in Western Balkan Region. Science of the Total Environment, 399(1–3), 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UNEP (2001). Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants, UNEP/POPs/CONF/PM/Rev.1. United Nations Environment Programme, Stockholm Sweden.Google Scholar