Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 11, pp 6683–6692 | Cite as

Characterization of ionic composition of TSP and PM10 during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran

  • Abbas Shahsavani
  • Kazem Naddafi
  • Nematollah Jaafarzadeh Haghighifard
  • Alireza Mesdaghinia
  • Masud Yunesian
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
  • Mohamad Arhami
  • Maryam Yarahmadi
  • Mohammad Hossein Sowlat
  • Maryam Ghani
  • Ahmad Jonidi Jafari
  • Mahmood Alimohamadi
  • Seyed Abbas Motevalian
  • Zahra Soleimani
Article

Abstract

Because of the recent frequent observations of major dust storms in southwestern cities in Iran such as Ahvaz, and the importance of the ionic composition of particulate matters regarding their health effects, source apportionment, etc., the present work was conducted aiming at characterizing the ionic composition of total suspended particles (TSP) and particles on the order of ∼10 μm or less (PM10) during dust storms in Ahvaz in April–September 2010. TSP and PM10 samples were collected and their ionic compositions were determined using an ion chromatography. Mean concentrations of TSP and PM10 were 1,481.5 and 1,072.9 μg/m3, respectively. Particle concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) days were up to four times higher than those in normal days. Ionic components contributed to only 9.5% and 11.3% of the total mass of TSP and PM10, respectively. Crustal ions were most abundant during dust days, while secondary ions were dominant during non-dust days. Ca2+/Na+ and Cl/Na+ ratios can be considered as the indicators for identification of the MED occurrence. It was found that possible chemical forms of NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, KCl, K2SO4, CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2, and CaSO4 may exist in TSP. Correlation between the anionic and cationic components suggests slight anion and cation deficiencies in TSP and PM10 samples, though the deficiencies were negligible.

Keywords

The Middle Eastern Dust storm TSP PM10 Water-soluble ions Ahvaz 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was part of a PhD thesis funded by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (research project number #9742) and Institute for Environmental Research (IER). We wish to thank the Iranian National of Institute Health Research (NIHR) for provision of the location for sampling station and cooperation in the sampling.

References

  1. Arimoto, R., Duce, R. A., Savoie, D. L., Prospero, J. M., Talbot, R., Cullen, J. D., et al. (1996). Relationships among aerosol constituents from Asia and the North Pacific during PEM-West A. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 2011–2023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chan, C.-C., Chuang, K.-J., Chen, W.-J., Chang, W.-T., Lee, C.-T., & Peng, C.-M. (2008). Increasing cardiopulmonary emergency visits by long-range transported asian dust storms in Taiwan. Environmental Research, 106(3), 393–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, S.-J., Hsieh, L.-T., Kao, M.-J., Lin, W.-Y., Huang, K.-L., & Lin, C.-C. (2004). Characteristics of particles sampled in Southern Taiwan during the asian dust storm periods in 2000 and 2001. Atmospheric Environment, 38(35), 5925–5934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng, M. T., Lin, Y. C., Chio, C. P., Wang, C. F., & Kuo, C. Y. (2005). Characteristics of aerosols collected in Central Taiwan during an asian dust event in spring 2000. Chemosphere, 61(10), 1439–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, M. T., Chou, W. C., Chio, C. P., Hsu, S. C., Su, Y. R., Kuo, P. H., et al. (2008). Compositions and source apportionments of atmospheric aerosol during Asian dust storm and local pollution in Central Taiwan. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 61, 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Draxler, R. R., Gillette, D. A., Kirkpatrick, J. S., & Heller, J. (2001). Estimating PM10 air concentrations from dust storms in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Atmospheric Environment, 35(25), 4315–4330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fairlie, T. D., Jacobb, D. J., & Parkb, R. J. (2007). The impact of transpacific transport of mineral dust in the United States. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 1251–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goudie, A. S., & Middleton, N. J. (2001). Saharan dust storms: Nature and consequences. Earth-Science Reviews, 56, 179–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guo, J. H., Rahn, K. A., & Zhuang, G. S. (2004). A mechanism for the increase of pollution elements in dust storms in Beijing. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 855–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hughes, L. S., Cass, G. R., Gone, J., Ames, M., & Olmez, I. (1998). Physical and chemical characterization of atmospheric ultra fine particles in the Los Angeles area. Earth Science and Technology, 32, 1153–1161.Google Scholar
  11. Husar, R. B., Tratt, D. B., Schichtel, B. A., Falke, S. R., Li, F., Jaffe, D., et al. (2001). Asian dust events of April 1998. Journal of Geophysical Reaseach, 106, 18316–18330.Google Scholar
  12. Kang, C.-H., Kim, W.-H., Ko, H.-J., & Hong, S.-B. (2009). Asian dust effects on total suspended particulate (TSP) compositions at Gosan in Jeju Island, Korea. Atmospheric Research, 94(2), 345–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kouyoumdjian, K., & Saliba, N. A. (2006). Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 1865–1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kurosaki, Y., & Mikami, M. (2003). Recent frequent dust events and their relation to surface wind in east Asia. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(14), 1736–1739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kwon, H. J., Cho, S. H., Chun, Y., Lagarde, F., & Pershagen, G. (2002). Effects of the Asian dust events on daily mortality in Seoul, Korea. Environmental Research, 90, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, S. B., Bae, G. N., Moon, K. C., & Pyo Kim, Y. (2002). Characteristics of TSP and PM2.5 measured at Tokchok Island in the Yellow Sea. Atmospheric Environment, 36(35), 5427–5435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, B. K., Lee, H. K., & Jun, N. Y. (2006). Analysis of regional and temporal characteristics of PM10 during an asian dust episode in Korea. Chemosphere, 63(7), 1106–1115. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leon, J.-F., & Legrand, M. (2003). Mineral dust sources in the surroundings of the North Indian Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(42), 1309–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lia, J., Zhuanga, G., Huanga, K., Lina, Y., Xua, C., & Yu, S. (2008). Characteristics and sources of air-borne particulate in Urumqi, China, the upstream area of Asia dust. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 776–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liao, H., Yung, Y. L., & Seinfeld, J. H. (1999). Effect of aerosols on tropospheric photolysis rates in clear and cloudy atmospheres. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 23697–23707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meng, Z., & Lu, B. (2007). Dust events as a risk factor for daily hospitalization for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Minqin, China. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7048–7058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Satheesh, S. K., & Krishna Moorthy, K. (2005). Radiative effects of natural aerosols: A review. Atmospheric Environment, 39(11), 2089–2110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shen, Z., Cao, J., Arimoto, R., Han, Z., Zhang, R., Han, Y., et al. (2009). Ionic composition of TSP and PM2.5 during dust storms and air pollution episodes at Xi’an, China. Atmospheric Environment, 43(18), 2911–2918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tsai, Y. I., & Chen, C. L. (2006). Characterization of Asian dust storm and non-Asian dust storm PM2.5 aerosol in Southern Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment, 40(25), 4734–4750. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.04.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. USEPA (1997). National ambient air quality standards for particulate matter: Final rule. Federal Register, 62 (138), 38651–38701. US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  26. Wang, S., Wang, J., Zhou, Z., & Shang, K. (2005). Regional characteristics of three kinds of dust storm events in China. Atmospheric Environment, 39(3), 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, Y., Zhuang, G., Zhang, X., Huang, K., Xu, C., Tang, A., et al. (2006). The ion chemistry, seasonal cycle, and sources of PM2.5 and tsp aerosol in Shanghai. Atmospheric Environment, 40(16), 2935–2952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang, Y., Zhuang, G., Tang, A., Zhang, W., Sun, Y., Wang, Z., et al. (2007). The evolution of chemical components of aerosols at five monitoring sites of China during dust storms. Atmospheric Environment, 41(5), 1091–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xiao, H.-Y., & Liu, C.-Q. (2004). Chemical characteristics of water-soluble components in TSP over Guiyang, SW China, 2003. Atmospheric Environment, 38(37), 6297–6306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yao, X., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., Cadle, S., Chan, T., Mulawa, P., et al. (2002). The water-soluble ionic composition of PM2.5 in Shanghai and Beijing, China. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 4223–4234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang, D. (1995). Paleoclimate and environmental records available from Chinese historical documents. In T. Mikami, E. Matsumoto, S. Ohata, & T. Sweda (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Environmental Variability in Austral-Asian Transect during the Past 2000 years (pp. 20–26). Japan: Nagoya University.Google Scholar
  32. Zhang, W., Zhuang, G., Guo, J., Xu, D., Wang, W., Baumgardner, D., et al. (2010). Sources of aerosol as determined from elemental composition and size distributions in Beijing. Atmospheric Research, 95(2–3), 197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas Shahsavani
    • 1
  • Kazem Naddafi
    • 1
    • 3
    • 6
  • Nematollah Jaafarzadeh Haghighifard
    • 2
  • Alireza Mesdaghinia
    • 1
  • Masud Yunesian
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
    • 1
  • Mohamad Arhami
    • 4
  • Maryam Yarahmadi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Sowlat
    • 1
  • Maryam Ghani
    • 1
  • Ahmad Jonidi Jafari
    • 1
  • Mahmood Alimohamadi
    • 1
  • Seyed Abbas Motevalian
    • 5
  • Zahra Soleimani
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental HealthAhvaz Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences & Environmental Technology Research CenterAhvazIran
  3. 3.Institute for Environmental Research(IER)TehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.TehranIran

Personalised recommendations