Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 6, pp 3887–3899 | Cite as

Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India

  • K. Ramesh
  • L. Elango


Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km2 and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox’s diagram, Kelly’s ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO3, mixed Ca–Mg–Cl and Na–Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively.


Water quality Drinking purpose Major ions Nitrate Sodium absorption ratio Residual sodium chloride Permeability index Magnesium hazard Kelly’s ratio 



We would like to thank Department of Science and Technology's Funds for Improvement in Science and Technology scheme (Grant No. SR/FST/ESI-106/2010), University Grants Commission's Special Assistance Programme (Grant No. UGC DRS II F.550/10/DRS/2007(SAP-1)) and University Grants Commission's Centre with Potential for Excellence in Environmental Science (Grant no. F.No.1-9/2002 (NS/PE)) for their financial support which helped to carry out this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Water ResourcesAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

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