Ammonia emissions from a broiler farm: spatial variability of airborne concentrations in the vicinity and impact on adjacent woodland
- 207 Downloads
Agricultural NH3 emissions affect air quality and influence the nitrogen cycle. In the subject study, NH3 emissions from a broiler farm and the resulting atmospheric concentrations in the immediate vicinity during three growing cycles have been quantified. Additionally, vegetation along a transect in an adjacent woodland was analysed. The emissions were as high as 10 kg NH3 h−1 and the atmospheric concentrations ranged between 33 and 124 μg NH3 m−3 per week in the immediate vicinity. Measurements of the atmospheric concentrations over 7 weeks showed a substantial decline of mean concentrations (based on a 3-week average) from ∼13 to <3 μg NH3 m−3, at 45- and 415-m distance from the farm. Vegetation surveys showed that nitrophilous species flourished when they grew closest to the farm (their occurrence sank proportionately with distance). A clearly visible damage of pine trees was observed within 200 m of the farm; this illustrated the significant impact of NH3 emissions from agricultural sources on the sensitive ecosystem.
KeywordsAmmonia Broiler Emission Spatial dispersion patterns Woodland flora
The authors thank the Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim for its financial support and providing the contact to the broiler farm. We are grateful to the farmer who encouraged the extensive measurements in and around the broiler farm. We also acknowledge the support of the Eberswalde Forestry Competence Centre (Research Institute of the Public Enterprise Forst Brandenburg) for recording data of the vegetation surveys and taking the measurements with passive samplers along a transect through the woodland. Furthermore, we wish to thank the Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries in Braunschweig for the provision of passive samplers at five monitoring points around the farm with subsequent lab analyses. Special thank goes to Thorsten Hinz and Richard Eisenschmidt.
- Aneja, V. P., Roelle, P. A., Murray, G. C., Southerland, J., Erisman, J. W., Fowler, D., et al. (2001). Atmospheric nitrogen compounds II: Emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 1905–1911.Google Scholar
- Cocheo, C., Boaretto, C., Pagani, D., Quaglio, F., Sacco, P., Zaratin, L., et al. (2008). Field evaluation of thermal and chemical desorption BTEX radial diffusive sampler radiello compared with active (pumped) samplers for ambient air measurements. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 11, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DIN-EN 13528-3 (2004). Ambient air quality—Diffusive samplers for the determination of concentrations of gases and vapours—Part 3: Guide to selection, use and maintenance. Beuth Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1–43.Google Scholar
- Ferm, M. (1991). A sensitive diffusive sampler. Göteborg, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Report L91-172.Google Scholar
- Fowler, W. J. (1982). Fundamentals of passive vapour sampling. American Laboratory, 14, 80–87.Google Scholar
- Hinz, T., Linke, S., Eisenschmidt, R., Müller, H.-J., & von Bobrutzki, K. (2008). Small scale dispersion of ammonia around animal husbandries. Landbauforschung Völkenrode, 58, 295–305.Google Scholar
- Kallweit, R., & Böttinger, A. (2001). Waldschadenserhebung (WSE, Level I). Forstliche umweltkontrolle ergebnisse aus zehnjährigen untersuchungen zur wirkung von luftverunreinigungen in Brandenburgs Wäldern (pp. 16–37). Eberswalde: Landesforstanstalt.Google Scholar
- Mosquera, J., Monteny, G. J. & Erisman, J. W. (2005). Overview and assessment of techniques to measure ammonia emissions from animal houses: the case of the Netherlands. Environmental Pollution, 135, 381–388.Google Scholar
- Pitcairn, C. E. R., Leith, I. D., Sheppard, L. J., Sutton, M. A., Fowler, D., Munro, R. C., et al. (1998). The relationship between nitrogen deposition, species composition and foliar nitrogen concentrations in woodland flora in the vicinity of livestock farms. Environmental Pollution, 102, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pitcairn, C. E. R., Skiba, U. M., Sutton, M. A., Fowler, D., Munro, R. C., & Kennedy, V. (2002). Defining the spatial impacts of poultry farm ammonia emissions on species composition of adjacent woodland groundflora using Ellenberg Nitrogen Index, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions and foliar nitrogen as marker variables. Environmental Pollution, 119, 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pitcairn, C. E. R., Leith, I. D., van Dijk, N., Sheppard, L. J., Sutton, M. A., & Fowler, D. (2009). The application of transects to assess the effects of ammonia on woodland groundflora. In MA Sutton, S Reis, S Baker (Eds.), Atmospheric ammonia (pp. 49–58). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Redwine, J. S., Lacey, R., Mukhtar, S., & Carey, J. B. (2002). Concentration and emissions of ammonia and particular matter in tunnel-ventilated broiler barns under summer conditions in Texas. ASABE, 45, 1101–1109.Google Scholar
- Skiba, U., Pitcairn, C., Sheppard, L., Kennedy, V., & Fowler, D. (2004). The influence of atmospheric N deposition on nitrous oxide and nitric oxide fluxes and soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Focus, 4, 37–43.Google Scholar
- TA-Luft (2002). Technical instructions on air quality control. Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. http://www.taluft.com/taluft20020730.pdf.
- UNECE (1999). Draft protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone (EB.AIR/1999.1).Google Scholar
- Waldzustandsbericht (2008). Waldzustandsbericht der Länder Brandenburg und Berlin. http://www.brandenburg.de/cms/media.php/2324/wse2008.pdf.
- Warneck, P. (1988). Chemistry of the natural atmosphere. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
- Zimmerling, R. (2000). Die qualität der konzentrationsmessung mit passiv-samlern ergebnisse methodischer untersuchungen. Landbauforschung Völkenrode, 213, 129–133.Google Scholar