Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 6, pp 3697–3710 | Cite as

Spatial variability of the shallow groundwater level and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, North China

  • Zaiming Zhou
  • Guanghui Zhang
  • Mingjiang Yan
  • Jinzhe Wang


To characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater level (GWL) and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, shallow groundwater depth of 130 wells were determined. Water soluble ions composition, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), and total salt content (TS) of 128 representative groundwater samples were also measured. Classical statistics, geostatistical method combined with GIS technique were then used to analyze the spatial variability and distribution of GWL and groundwater chemical properties. Results show that GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS all presented a lognormal distribution and could be fitted by different semivariogram models (spherical, exponential, and Gaussian). Spatial structure of GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS changed obviously. GWL decreased from west inland plain to the east coastal plain, however, TDS, EC, and TS increased from west to east, TH and TA were higher in the middle and coastal plain area. Groundwater chemical type in the coastal plain was SO 4 2− ·Cl—Na+ while chemical types in the inland plain were SO 4 2− ·Cl—Ca2+·Mg2+ and HCO 3 —Ca2+·Mg2+.


Low plain around the Bohai Sea Groundwater level Groundwater chemistry characteristics Spatial variability 



We would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers who have contributed valuable comments that helped improve the manuscript. This research was supported by the National Key Technology R&D Program (nos. 2007BAD69B02 and 2009BADA3B05), Basic Research Program of Department of Science and Technology of Hebei Province (no. 08966711D).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zaiming Zhou
    • 1
  • Guanghui Zhang
    • 1
  • Mingjiang Yan
    • 1
  • Jinzhe Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental GeologyChinese Academy of Geological SciencesZhengdingChina

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