Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 3, pp 1379–1389 | Cite as

Heavy metals in Yeniçağa Lake and its potential sources: soil, water, sediment, and plankton

  • Yasemin Saygı
  • Sibel Atasagun Yiğit
Article

Abstract

The distribution and accumulation of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Ba, Pb) in the water, sediments, plankton of Yeniçağa Lake, and its potential sources (creeks, sewage, artesian well, soil) were investigated during 1-year study period as monthly or seasonally. Element analyses were performed by ICP–MS. Results showed that the trace and toxic elements (Al, As, Mn, Pb, Fe) concentration in lake water and/or its feeding sources were above the recommended water standards (WHO, EC, EPA, TS-266). It was found that the maximum accumulation of the heavy metals iron, aluminum, manganese, zinc, and barium in the sediment of Yeniçağa Lake. The accumulation order of trace metals were Fe > Al > Mn > Zn > Ba > Ni > Cr > As > Cu > Pb > Co > Mo > Sn > Cd in the lake, creeks sediment, and soil samples. The similar results suggest that the accumulation of heavy metals in the sediment is a natural process. Metals accumulated in the lake are naturally mixed from the soil. However, the presence of heavy metals in the analysis of artesian well water and sewage reveals that the transportation occurs also from the groundwater to the lake. The results obtained in plankton in Yeniçağa Lake showed that aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, and barium were most accumulated elements in the plankton. The lower averages of lead prevalent in the water and sediment during some months were seen to have a significant mean accumulation in the plankton.

Keywords

Heavy metals Bioaccumulation Water Sediment Plankton ICP–MS Yeniçağa Lake 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aksoy, G. (2005). Determination of heavy metal of water, sediment and plankton in Gediz. MS thesis, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  2. Altındağ, A., & Yiğit, S. (2005). Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the food web of lake Beyşehir, Turkey. Chemosphere, 60, 552–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arain, M. B., Kazi, T. G., Jamali, M. K., Jalbani, H. I., Afridi, H. I., & Shah, A. (2008). Total dissolved and bioavailable elements in water and sediment samples and their accumulation in Oreochromis mossambicus of polluted Manchar Lake. Chemosphere, 70, 1845–1856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernhard, M. (1976). Sampling analyses of biological material. Manuel of methods in aquatic environment research. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, FIRI/T158, Rome.Google Scholar
  5. Bury, N. R., Walker, P.A., & Glover, C. N. (2003). Nutritive metal uptake in teleost fish. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, C., Stemberger, R. S., Klaue, B., Blum, J. D., Pickhardt, C., & Folt, C. L. (2000). Accumulation of heavy metals in food web components across a gradient of lakes. Limnology and Oceangraphy, 45(7), 1525–1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demirak, A., Yılmaz, F., Tuna, L. A., & Özdemir, N. (2006). Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Leuciscus cephalus from a stream in Southwestern Turkey. Chemosphere, 63, 1451–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Demirkalp, Y., & Saygı, Y. (2001). Yeniçağa Gölü’nde Yaşayan Ekonomik Öneme Sahip Balık Türlerinin Büyüme ve Beslenme Özellikleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Araştırma Fonu Projesi, Proje No: 98.01.601.002 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  9. Dybern, B. I. (1983). Manuel of methods in aquatic environment research. Analyses of metals in fish (pp. 212–1). FAO Technical paper.Google Scholar
  10. EC (1998). Europian Union Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 330/32.Google Scholar
  11. EPA (2009). National primary and secondary drinking water regulations. Washington, D.C.: EPA.Google Scholar
  12. Erinç, S., Bilgin, T., & Bener, M. (1962). Çağa Depresyonu ve Boğazı. İ.Ü. Coğrafya Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(12), 170–173 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  13. Ertan, A., Kılıç, A., & Kasparek, M. (1989). Türkiye’nin Önemli Kuş Alanları. Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği Yayını.Google Scholar
  14. Förstner, U., & Wittmann, G. T. W. (1981). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Karadede, H., & Ünlü, E. (2000). Concentrations of some heavy metal in water, sediment and fish species from the Atatürk Dam Lake (Euphrates), Turkey. Chemosphere, 41, 1371–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karadede, H. A., & Ünlü, E. (2007). Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, fish, and some benthic organisms from Tigris River, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assesment, 131, 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kerrison, P. H., Annonsi, D., Zerini, S., Ravera, O., & Moss, B. (1998). Plankton effects of low concentration of heavy metals on plankton community dynamics in a small, shallow fertile lake. Journal of Plankton Research, 10, 779–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Külköylüoğlu, O., Dügel, M., & Kılıç, M. (2007). Ecological requirements of Ostracoda (Crustacea) in a heavily polluted shallow lake, Lake Yeniçağa (Bolu, Turkey). Hydrobiologia, 585, 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lahn, E. (1948). Türkiye Göllerinin Jeolojisi ve Jeomorfolojisi Hakkında Bir Etüt. MTA Arama Yayınları, Seri B, No:12 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  20. Macdonald, D. D., Ingersoll, C. G., & Berger, T. A. (2000). Development and evoluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 39, 20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Markert, B., Pedrozo, F., Geller, W., Friese, K., Korhammer, S., Baffico, G., et al. (1997). A contribution to the study of the heavy metal and nutritional element status of some lakes in the southern Andes of Patagonia (Argentina). Science of the Total Environment, 206, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marshall, J. S., & Mellinger, D. L. (1980). Dynamics of cadmium stressed plankton communities. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 37, 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nguyen, H. L., Leermarkers, M., Osan, J., Török, S., & Baeyens, W. (2005). Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: Water column, suspended mater, sediment and biota. Science of the Total Environment, 340, 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pekcan, N. (1993). Yeniçağa Depresyonunun (Bolu) Jeomorfolojik Oluşum ve Gelişimi. İ.Ü. Coğrafya Bölümü Coğrafya Dergisi, 4, 113–122 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  25. Perin, G., Bonardi, M., Fabris, R., Simoncini, B., Manente, S., Tosi, L., et al. (1997). Heavy metal pollution in central Venice Lagoon bottom sediments: Evolution of the metal bioavailability by geochemical speciation procedure. Environmental Technology, 1(18), 593–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prat, N., Toja, J., Sola, C., Burgos, M. D., Plans, M., & Rieradevall, M. (1999). Effects of dumping and cleaning activities on the aquatic ecosystems of the Guadiamar River following a toxic flood. Science of the Total Environment, 242, 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Saygı, Y. (2000). Some limnological chacteristics of Yeniçağa lake, its primary and secondary production. PH.D. thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  28. Saygı (Başbuğ), Y. (2005). Seasonal succesion and distribution of zooplankton in Yeniçağa Lake (Bolu, Turkey). Zoology in The Middle East, 34, 93–100.Google Scholar
  29. Saygı (Başbuğ), Y., & Demirkalp, F. Y. (2004a). Trophic status of shallow Yeniçağa Lake (Bolu, Turkey) in relation to physical and chemical environment. Fresenius Environmenta Bulletin, 13(5), 385–393.Google Scholar
  30. Saygı (Başbuğ), Y., & Demirkalp, F. Y. (2004b). Primary production in shallow eutrophic Yeniçağa lake (Bolu, Turkey). Fresenius Environmenta Bulletin, 13(2), 98–104.Google Scholar
  31. Saygı (Başbuğ), Y., & Demirkalp, F. Y. (2005). Yeniçağa Gölü(Bolu)’nde Acanthodiaptomus denticornis (Wierzejki, 1887)’in Sekonder Produktivitesi. Ulusal Su Günleri 2005 Sempozyumu, Türk Sucul Yaşam Dergisi, 4, 42–47 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  32. Saygı (Başbuğ), Y., & Yiğit, S. (2005). Rotifera community structure of Yeniçağa Lake (Bolu, Turkey). Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 20(1), 197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saygı (Başbuğ), Y., & Yiğit, S. (2010). Determination of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain of Yeniçağa Lake (Bolu). Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, ÇAYDAG-107Y180, Final Report (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  34. Sümer, N. (2002). Flora of Lake Yeniçağa. MS thesis, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  35. Tekin, S. Ö. (2008). Determinations of heavy metal levels in water, sediment and tissues of tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assesment, 145, 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. TS-266 (2005). Water intended for human consumption. Institution of Turkish Standarts publications, ICS 13.060.20.Google Scholar
  37. WHO (2009). Guidelines for drinking-water quality (3rd Ed.). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  38. Yiğit, S., & Altındağ, A. (2002). Accumulation of heavy metals in the food web components of Burdur Lake, Turkey. Fresenius Environmenta Bulletin, 11(12A), 1048–1052.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology Department, Faculty of ScienceHacettepe UniversityBeytepeTurkey
  2. 2.Biology Department, Faculty of ScienceAnkara UniversityBeşevlerTurkey

Personalised recommendations