Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) Massal.: a bioaccumulator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kanpur City, India
- 195 Downloads
The aim of this study is to determine the possibility of using Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) Massal., a crustose lichen as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bioaccumulator for evaluation of atmospheric pollution in tropical areas of India, where few species of lichens are able to grow. PAHs were identified, quantified and compared to evaluate the potential utility of R. sophodes. The limit of detection for different PAHs was found to be 0.008–0.050 μg g − 1. The total PAHs in different sites were ranged between 0.189 ± 0.029 and 0.494 ± 0.105 μg g − 1. The major sources of PAHs were combustion of organic materials, traffic and vehicular exhaust (diesel and gasoline engine). Significantly higher concentration of acenaphthylene and phenanthrene indicates road traffic as major source of PAH pollution in the city. Two-way ANOVA also confirms that all PAHs content showed significant differences between all sampling sites (P 1%). This study establishes the utility of R. sophodes in monitoring the PAHs accumulation potentiality for development of effective tool and explores the most potential traits resistant to the hazardous environmental conditions in the tropical regions of north India, where no such other effective way of biomonitoring is known so far.
KeywordsRinodina sophodes PAHs Bioaccumulation Traffic level Kanpur City India
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Augusto, S. C., Máguas, J., Matos, M. J., Pereira, A., Soares, C., & Branquinho. (2009). Spatial modeling of PAHs in lichens for fingerprinting of multisource atmospheric pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 43, 7762–7769.Google Scholar
- Blasco, M., Domeno, C., & Nerín, C. (2006). Use of lichens as pollution biomonitors in remote areas: Comparison of PAHs extracted from lichens and atmospheric particles sampled in and around the somport tunnel (Pyrenees). Science of the Total Environment, 40, 6384–6391.Google Scholar
- Gomez, K. A., & Gomez, A. A. (1984). Statistical procedure for agricultural research. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Grimmer, G., Brune, H., Deutsch-Wenzel, R. P., Dettbarn, G., & Misfeld, J. (1984). Lichens as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulators used in atmospheric pollution studies. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 72, 185–90.Google Scholar
- Grimmer, G., Brune, H., Deutch-Wenzel, R. P., Naujack, K.-W., Misfeld, J., & Timm, J. (1983). On the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of automobile exhaust condensate evaluated by local application onto mouse skin. Cancer Letter, 21, 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huber, W. (2003). Basic calculations about the limit of detection and its optimal determination. Accred Quality Assurance, 8, 213–217.Google Scholar
- Saxena, S. (2004). Lichen flora of Lucknow district with reference to air pollution studies in the area (pp. 1–131). Ph.D. thesis, University of Lucknow (submitted to).Google Scholar
- US EPA (1986). Test methods for evaluating solid waste (Vol 1B). Laboratory Manual Physical/Chemical Methods. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar