Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) Massal.: a bioaccumulator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kanpur City, India
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The aim of this study is to determine the possibility of using Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) Massal., a crustose lichen as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bioaccumulator for evaluation of atmospheric pollution in tropical areas of India, where few species of lichens are able to grow. PAHs were identified, quantified and compared to evaluate the potential utility of R. sophodes. The limit of detection for different PAHs was found to be 0.008–0.050 μg g − 1. The total PAHs in different sites were ranged between 0.189 ± 0.029 and 0.494 ± 0.105 μg g − 1. The major sources of PAHs were combustion of organic materials, traffic and vehicular exhaust (diesel and gasoline engine). Significantly higher concentration of acenaphthylene and phenanthrene indicates road traffic as major source of PAH pollution in the city. Two-way ANOVA also confirms that all PAHs content showed significant differences between all sampling sites (P 1%). This study establishes the utility of R. sophodes in monitoring the PAHs accumulation potentiality for development of effective tool and explores the most potential traits resistant to the hazardous environmental conditions in the tropical regions of north India, where no such other effective way of biomonitoring is known so far.
KeywordsRinodina sophodes PAHs Bioaccumulation Traffic level Kanpur City India
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