Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 181, Issue 1–4, pp 183–204 | Cite as

Hydrochemical and water quality assessment of groundwater in Doon Valley of Outer Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

  • Divya Dudeja
  • Sukesh Kumar Bartarya
  • A. K. Biyani


The present study discusses ion sources and assesses the chemical quality of groundwater of Doon Valley in Outer Himalayan region for drinking and irrigational purposes. Valley is almost filled with Doon gravels that are main aquifers supplying water to its habitants. Recharged only by meteoric water, groundwater quality in these aquifers is controlled essentially by chemical processes occurring between water and lithology and locally altered by human activities. Seventy-six water samples were collected from dug wells, hand pumps and tube wells and were analysed for their major ion concentrations. The pH is varying from 5.6 to 7.4 and electrical conductivity from 71 to 951 μmho/cm. Groundwater of Doon valley is dominated by bicarbonate contributing 83% in anionic abundance while calcium and magnesium dominate in cationic concentrations with 88%. The seasonal and spatial variation in ionic concentration, in general, is related to discharge and lithology. The high ratio of (Ca + Mg)/(Na + K), i.e. 10, low ratio of (Na + K)/TZ+, i.e.0.2 and also the presence of carbonate lithology in the northern part of valley, is indicative of carbonate dissolution as the main controlling solute acquisition process in the valley. The low abundance of silica content and high HCO3/H4SiO4 ratio also supports carbonate dissolution and less significant role of silicate weathering as the major source for dissolved ions in Doon Valley. The analytical results computed for various indices show that water is of fairly good quality, although, hard but have moderate dissolved solid content. It is free from sodium hazard lying in C1–S1 and C2–S1 class of USSL diagram and in general suitable for drinking and irrigation except few locations having slightly high salinity hazard.


Hydrochemistry Groundwater quality Doon valley Doon gravels Aquifers Salinity Outer Himalaya 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divya Dudeja
    • 1
  • Sukesh Kumar Bartarya
    • 1
  • A. K. Biyani
    • 2
  1. 1.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehradunIndia
  2. 2.D.B.S. CollegeHNB Garhwal UniversityDehradunIndia

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