Environmental status of a tropical lake system
- 298 Downloads
Eutrophication has become a serious threat to the lake systems all over the world. This is mainly due to the pollution caused by anthropogenic activities. Carlson trophic state index (CTSI) is commonly used for the classification of trophic conditions of surface waters. The study is conducted to assess the trophic status of a tropical lake (Akkulam–Veli lake, Kerala, India) using CTSI based on Secchi disc depth (SD), total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a. The TSI values based on SD and TP are high (>70), indicating the hypereutrophic state which needs urgent action for the restoration of the fragile ecosystem. The higher TP in both lakes, and the lower value of chlorophyll-a in the Akkulam part, warrant explanation, are discussed here. The influence of other biochemical parameters in both the Akkulam and the Veli part of the lake has been assessed. Correlation analysis is conducted to study the effect of various water quality parameters. The variation in the water quality before and after the opening of sand bar is studied using paired t test. As almost all the lakes in the world are experiencing similar situation of extinction, this study is helpful to have an insight in the hydrochemistry of the lake as well as to identify the worst affected areas of the lakes.
KeywordsTrophic state index Correlation analysis Paired t test Akkulam–Veli lake Kerala
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (21st ed). Washington D. C.: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Boavida, M. J., & Marques, R. T. (1996). Total phosphorus as in indicator of trophic state of Portuguese reservoirs. Limnetica, 12(2), 31–37.Google Scholar
- Brezonik, P. I., & Shannon, E. E. (1977). Trophic state of lakes in north central Florida. Florida Water Resources Research, Center Publ, 13, 102.Google Scholar
- Carlson, R. E., & Simpson, J. (1996). A Coordinator’s guide to volunteer lake monitoring methods (96 pp.). North American Lake Management Society.Google Scholar
- Chapra, S. C. (1997). Surface water quality modelling (Vol. 521, 844 pp.). McGraw-Hill Series in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering.Google Scholar
- Havens, K. E. (2000). Using Trophic State Index (TSI) values to draw inferences regarding phytoplankton limiting factors and seston composition from routine water quality monitoring data. Korean Journal of Limnology, 33(3), 187–196.Google Scholar
- Mason, C. F. (1991). Biology of freshwater pollution (2nd ed., Vol. 95). England: Longman Scientific and Technical.Google Scholar
- Michalski, M. F., & Conroy, N. (1972). Water quality evaluation—Lake alert study (Vol. 23). Ontario Mining Environmental Reporter.Google Scholar
- Nayak, B. K., Acharya, B. C., Panda, U. C., Nayak, B. B., & Acharya, S. K. (2003). Variation of water quality in Chilka lake, Orissa. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 33(2), 164–169.Google Scholar
- Sawyer, C. N., Lackey, J. B., & Lenz, R. T. (1945). Report of the Governor’s Committee, Madison, Wis (Two Volumes). An investigation of the odor nuisance occurring in the Madison Lakes-Monona, Waubesa and Kegonsa.Google Scholar
- Sheela, A. M., Letha, J., Joseph, S., Ramachandran, K. K., & Sanalkumar, S. P. (2010). Trophic state index of a lake system using IRS (P6-LISS III0 satellite imagery. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1658-2.
- Wetzel, R. G. (1975). Limnology (743 pp.). Philadelphia: Saunders Company.Google Scholar
- WOW (2004). Mod8-An introduction to lake surveys-lake morphometry. www.waterontheweb.org/curricula/ws/unit-03/Mod_8.ppt. Accessed 8 August 2009.