Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 180, Issue 1–4, pp 325–344 | Cite as

On the quantitative distribution and community structure of the meio and macrofaunal communities in the coastal area of the Central Adriatic Sea (Italy)

  • Fabrizio Frontalini
  • Federica Semprucci
  • Rodolfo Coccioni
  • Maria Balsamo
  • Paolo Bittoni
  • Anabella Covazzi-Harriague
Article

Abstract

Many coastal areas have served as repositories of different anthropogenic and naturally induced organic material and nutrients. The major sources thereof are riverine inputs which strongly influence the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic communities. In this study, the benthic foraminiferal, meiofaunal, and macrofaunal colonies in front of three rivers in a poorly known, but environmentally valuable, area of the Central Adriatic Sea have been examined concurrently. The physico-chemical parameters of bottom water and sediment characteristics were determined in order to characterize both the sediment–water interface and the benthic environments. Although changes in the biota are neither univocal nor unidirectional, a moderate influence of riverine input on the different communities’ components can be inferred. The most affected taxa are foraminifera and copepods and, to a lesser extent, meiofaunal polychaetes and platyhelminthes. These results are also tested by the ABC curves, which reveal that the macrofaunal communities closest to the river mouths are moderately disturbed. This integrated investigation documents, for the first time, how benthic communities can be used as an early warning indicator with which to monitor the health quality of a coastal ecosystem.

Keywords

Foraminifera Meiofauna Macrofauna Riverine input Adriatic Sea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

10661_2010_1791_MOESM1_ESM.xls (32 kb)
(XLS 32.0 kb)
10661_2010_1791_MOESM2_ESM.xls (36 kb)
(XLS 36.5 kb)
10661_2010_1791_MOESM3_ESM.xls (28 kb)
(XLS 28.0 kb)
10661_2010_1791_MOESM4_ESM.xls (38 kb)
(XLS 38.0 kb)
10661_2010_1791_MOESM5_ESM.xls (39 kb)
(XLS 39.0 kb)

References

  1. Akomianaki, I., & Nicolaidou, A. (2007). Spatial variability and dynamics of macrobenthos in a Mediterranean delta front area: The role of physical processes. Journal of Sea Research, 57, 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberelli, G., Covazzi-Harriague, A., Danovaro, R., Fabiano, M., & Fraschetti, S. (1999). Differential responses of bacteria, meiofauna and macrofauna in a shelf area (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean): Role of food availability. Journal of Sea Research, 42, 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alve, E. (1995). Benthic foraminifera response to estuarine pollution. A review. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25, 190–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alve, E., & Goldstein, S. T. (2002). Resting stage in benthic foraminiferal propagules: A key feature for dispersal? Evidence fromtwo shallow-water species. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 21, 95–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alve, E., & Goldstein, S. T. (2010). Dispersal, survival and delayed growth of benthic foraminiferal propagules. Journal of Sea Research, 63, 36–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armynot du Châtelet, E., & Debenay, J. P. (2010). Anthropogenic impact on the western French coast as revealed by foraminifera: A review. Revue de Micropaléontologie, 53, 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armynot du Châtelet, E., Debenay, J. P., & Soulard, R. (2004). Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors. Environmental Pollution, 127, 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., & Russo, A. (1997). The adriatic sea general circulation. Part _I: Baroclinic circulation structure. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 1515–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Austen, M. C., McEvoy, A. J., & Warwick, R. M. (1994). The specificity of meiobenthic community responses to different pollutants: Results from microcosm experiments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 28, 557–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Balsamo, M., Alberelli, B. G., Seccherelli, V. U., Coccioni, R., Col angelo, M. A., Curini-Galletti, M., et al. (2010). Meiofauna of the Adriatic Sea: State of knowledge and future perspectives. Chemistry and Ecology, 25, 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balsamo, M., Semprucci, F., & Mosci, D. (2003). La meiofauna del tratto costiero della falesia del Monte San Bartolo. In R. Coccioni (Ed.), Verso la gestione integrata della costa del Monte San Bartolo: risultati di un progetto pilota (Vol. 1, pp. 63–75). Quaderni del Centro di Geobiologia, Univ. Urbino, Arti STIBU, Urbania.Google Scholar
  12. Barmawidjaja, D. M., Van der Zwaan, G. J., Jorissen, F. J., & Puskaric, S. (1995). 150 years of eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Evidence from a benthic foraminiferal record. Marine Geology, 122, 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell, S. S. (1980). Meiofauna–macrofauna interactions in a high salt marsh habitat. Ecological Monographs, 50, 487–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernhard, J. M. (1986). Characteristic assemblages and morphologies of benthic foraminifera from anoxic, organic-rich deposits. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 16, 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blanchard, A. L., Feder, H. M., & Shaw, D. G. (2002). Long-term investigation of benthic fauna and the influence of treated ballast water disposal in Port Valdez, Alaska. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44, 367–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blanchard, A. L., Feder, H. M., & Shaw, D. G. (2003). Variations in benthic fauna underneath an effluent mixing zone at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 1583–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bongers, T., Alkemade, R., & Yeates, G. W. (1991). Interpretation of disturbance-induced maturity decrease in marine nematode assemblages by means of the maturity index. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 76, 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boon, A. R., & Duineveld, G. C. A. (1998). Chlorophyll a as a marker for bioturbation and carbon flux in southern and central North Sea sediments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 162, 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borja, A., Franco, J., & Pérez, V. (2000). A marine biotic index to establish the ecological quality of soft-bottom benthos within European estuarine and coastal environments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 1100–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brakstad, F. (1992). A comprehensive pollution survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and dibenzofurans by means of principal component analysis and partial least squares regression. Chemosphere, 25, 1611–1629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buchanan, J. B., & Kain, J. M. (1971). Measurement of the physical and chemical environment. In N. A. Holme & A. D. McIntyre (Eds.), Methods for the study of marine benthos (pp. 30–52). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  22. Cicero, A. M., & Di Girolamo, I. (2001). Metodologie Analitiche di Riferimento del Programma di Riferimento per il controllo dell’ambiente marino costiero (triennio 2001–2003). Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio. Roma: ICRAM.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, K. R. (1990). Comparison of dominance curves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 138, 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coccioni, R., Frontalini, F., Marsili, A., & Mana, D. (2009). Benthic foraminifera and trace element distribution: A case-study from the heavily polluted lagoon of Venice (Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56, 257–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Colantoni, P., Mencucci, D., & Baldelli, G. (2003). Idrologia e idraulica costiere processi litorali attuali e deposizione dei sedimenti. In R. Coccioni (Ed.), Verso la gestione integrata della costa del Monte San Bartolo: risultati di un progetto pilota. (Vol. 1, pp. 15-39). Quaderni del Centro di Geobiologia, Univ Urbino, Arti STIBU, Urbania.Google Scholar
  26. Coull, B. C., & Bell, S. S. (1979). Perspectives of Marine Meiofaunal Ecology. In R. J. Livingston (Ed.), Ecological processes in coastal and marine systems (pp. 189–216). New York: Plenum Publishing Corp.Google Scholar
  27. Coull, B. C., & Palmer, M. A. (1984). Field experimentation in meiofaunal ecology. Hydrobiologia, 118, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Covazzi Harriague, A., Gaozza, L., Montella, A., & Misic, C. (2006). Benthic communities on a sandy Ligurian beach (NW Mediterranean). Hydrobiologia, 571, 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Covazzi Harriague, A., Misic, C., Petrillo, M., & Albertelli, G. (2007). Stressors affecting the macrobenthic community in Rapallo harbour (Ligurian Sea, Italy). Scientia Marina, 71, 705–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Danovaro, R., Fabiano, M., & Vincx, M. (1995). Meiofauna response to the Agip Abruzzo oil spill in subtidal sediments of the Ligurian Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30, 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Danovaro, R., Gambi, C., Manini, E., & Fabiano, M. (2000). Meiofauna response to a dynamic river plume front. Marine Biology, 137, 359–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Debenay, J. P., Bicchi, E., Goubert, E., & Armynot du Châtelet, E. (2006). Spatial and temporal distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the Vie Estuary (Vendée, W France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 67, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Debenay, J. P., Tsakiridis, E., Soulard, R., & Grossel, H. (2001). Factors determining the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages in Port Joinville Harbor (Ile d’Yeu, France): The influence of pollution. Marine Micropaleontology, 43, 75–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Deegan, L. A., Day, J. W., Gosselink Jr., J. G., Yánez-Arancibia, A., Chávez, G. S., & Sánchez-Gil, P. (1986). Relationships among physical characteristics, vegetation distribution and fisheries yield in Gulf of Mexico Estuaries. In A. Wolfe (Ed.), Estuarine variability (pp. 83–100). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Donnici, S., & Serandrei Barbero, R. (2002). The benthic foraminiferal communities of the northern Adriatic continental shelf. Marine Micropaleontology, 44, 93–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duijnstee, I., de Lugt, I., VonkNoordegraaf, H., & Van der Zwaan, B. (2004). Temporal variability of foraminiferal densities in the northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Micropaleontolgy, 50, 125–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Elberling, B., Knudsen, K. L., Kristensen, P. H., & Asmund, G. (2003). Applying foraminiferal stratigraphy as a biomarker for heavy metal contamination and mining impact in a fiord in West Greenland. Marine Environmental Research, 55, 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ellison, R. L., Brome, R., & Ogilvie, R. (1986). Foraminiferal response to trace metal contamination in the Patapsco river and Baltimore Harbor, Maryland. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17, 419–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Feller, R. J., & Warwick, R. M. (1988). Energetics. In R. P. Higgins & H. Thiel (Eds.), Introduction to the study of meiofauna (pp. 181–196). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ferraro, L., Sprovieri, M., Alberico, I., Lirer, F., Prevedello, L., & Marsella, E. (2006). Benthic foraminifera and heavy metals distribution: A case study from the Naples Harbour (Tyrrhenian Sea, Southern Italy). Environmental Pollution, 142, 274–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flach, E., Muthumbi, A., & Heip, C. (2002). Meiofauna and macrofauna community structure in relation to sediment composition at the Iberian margin compared to the Goban Spur (NE Atlantic). Progress in Oceanography, 52, 433–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Franco, P., Jeftic, L., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., Michelato, A., & Orlic, M. (1982). Descriptive model of the northern Adriatic. Oceanologica Acta, 5, 379–389.Google Scholar
  43. Fraschetti, S., Gambi, C., Giangrande, A., Musco, L., Terlizzi, A., & Danovaro, R. (2006). Structural and functional response of meiofauna rocky assemblages to sewage pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 540–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frontalini, F., Buosi, C., Da Pelo, S., Coccioni, R., Cherchi, A., & Bucci, C. (2009). Benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators of trace element pollution in the heavily contaminated Santa Gilla lagoon (Cagliari, Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58, 858–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frontalini, F., & Coccioni, R. (2008). Benthic foraminifera for heavy metal pollution monitoring: A case study from the central Adriatic Sea coast of Italy. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 76, 404–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Frontalini, F., Coccioni, R., & Bucci, C. (2010). The response of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in two heavily polluted lagoons: The study cases of Orbetello and Lesina. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 170, 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Galèron, J., Sibuet, M., Vanreusel, A., Mackenzie, K., Gooday, A. J., Dinet, A., et al. (2001). Temporal patterns among meiofauna and macrofauna taxa related to changes in sediment geochemistry at an abyssal NE Atlantic site. Progress in Oceanography, 50, 303–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gooday, A. J., Bernhard, J. M., Levin, L. A., & Suhr, S. B. (2000). Foraminifera in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone and other oxygen-deficient settings: Taxonomic composition, diversity, and relation to metazoan faunas. Deep-Sea Research II, 47, 25–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heip, C. H. R. (1995). Eutrophication and zoobenthos dynamics. Ophelia, 41, 113–136.Google Scholar
  50. Heip, C., Vincx, M., & Vranken, G. (1985). The ecology of marine nematodes. Oceanography and Marine Biology An Annual Review, 23, 399–489.Google Scholar
  51. Hopkins, T. S., Battilotti, M., De Lauro, M., Monassi, M., Ribera D’Alcalà, Saggiamo, V., et al. (1992). Lazio shelf experiment (crociera Hopi, Agosto, 1991): Distribuzione delle masse d’acqua e cenni sulla circolazione. In Proceedings of the 10th A. I. O. L., Alassio, 4–6 November 1992 (pp. 375–387).Google Scholar
  52. Jorissen, F. J. (1988). Benthic foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea: Principles of phenotypic variation. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletin, 37, 1–174.Google Scholar
  53. Jorissen, F. J., Barmawidjaja, D. M., Puskaric, S., & Van der Zwaan, G. J. (1992). Vertical distribution of benthic foraminifera in the northern Adriatic Sea: The relation with the organic flux. Marine Micropaleontology, 19, 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kemp, W. M., & Boynton, W. R. (1992). Benthic–pelagic interactions: Nutrient and oxygen dynamics. In D. E. Smith, M. Leffler, & G. Mackiernan (Eds.), Oxygen dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay, a synthesis of recent research (pp. 149–222). Maryland: Maryland Sea Grant College.Google Scholar
  55. Kennedy, A. D., & Jacoby, C. A. (1999). Biological indicators of marine environmental health: Meiofauna—A neglected benthic component? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 54, 47–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Manly, B. F. J. (1991). Randomization and Monte Carlo methods in biology. New York: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  57. McIntyre, A. D., & Warwick, R. M. (1984). Meiofauna Techniques. In N. A. Holme & A. D. McIntyre (Eds.), Methods for the study of marine benthos (pp. 217–244). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  58. Montagna, P. A., Kalke, R. D., & Ritter, C. (2002). Effect of restored freshwater inflow on macrofauna and meiofauna in upper Rincon Bayou, Texas, USA. Estuaries, 25, 1436–1447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Montagna, P. A., & Yoon, W. B. (1991). The effect of freshwater inflow on meiofaunal consumption of sediment bacteria and microphytobenthos in San Antonio Bay, Texas, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 33, 529–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moodley, L., Heip, C. H. R., & Middelburg, J. J. (1998). Benthic activity in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea: Sediment oxygen consumption, macro- and meiofauna dynamics. Journal of Sea Research, 40, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Murray, J. W. (1973). Distribution and ecology of living benthic foraminiferids. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  62. Murray, J. W. (1991). Ecology and paleoecology of benthic foraminifera. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  63. Murray, J. W. (2006). Ecology and applications of benthic foraminifera. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nixon, S. A., Oviatt, C. A., Frithsen, J., & Sullivan, B. (1986). Nutrients and the productivity of estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Journal of the Limnological Society of South Africa, 12, 43–71.Google Scholar
  65. Papageorgiou, N., Moreno, M., Marin, V., Baiardo, S., Arvanitidis, C., Fabiano, M., et al. (2007). Interrelationships of bacteria, meiofauna and macrofauna in a Mediterranean sedimentary beach (Maremma Park, NW Italy). Helgoland Marine Research, 61, 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Parker, W. C., & Arnold, A. J. (2000). Quantitative methods of data analysis in foraminiferal ecology. In B. K. Sen Gupta (Ed.), Modern foraminifera (pp. 71–89). Great Britain: Kluwer Academic Publisher.Google Scholar
  67. Pearson, T. H., & Rosenberg, R. (1976). A comparative study of the effects on the marine environment of wastes from cellulose industries in Scotland and Sweden. Ambio, 5, 77–79.Google Scholar
  68. Penna, N., Cappellacci, S., & Ricci, F. (2004). The influence of the Po River discharge on phytoplankton bloom dynamics along the coastline of Pesaro (Italy) in the Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perés, J. M., & Picard, J. (1964). Nouveau manuel de bionomie bentique de la Méditerranée. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, 31, 5–137.Google Scholar
  70. Ritter, M. C., & Montagna, P. A. (1999). Seasonal hypoxia and models of benthic response in a Texas bay. Estuaries, 22, 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosenberg, R. (1995). Benthic marine fauna structured by hydrodynamic processes and food availability. Journal of Sea Research, 34, 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Samir, A. M. (2000). The response of benthic foraminifera and ostracods to various pollution sources: a study from two lagoons in Egypt. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30, 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sandulli, R., & De Nicola-Giudici, M. (1990). Pollution effects on the structure of meiofaunal communities in the Bay of Naples. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 21, 144–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sandulli, R., & De Nicola-Giudici, M. (1991). Responses of meiobenthic communities along a gradient of sewage pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22, 463–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schafer, C. T. (1973). Distribution of Foraminifera near pollution sources in Chaleur Bay. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Seiglie, G. A. (1975). Foraminifers of Guayanilla bay and their use as environmental indicators. Revista Española de Micropaleontología, 7, 453–487.Google Scholar
  77. Semprucci, F., Boi, P., Manti, A., Covazzi Harriague, A., Rocchi, M., Colantoni, P., et al. (2010). Benthic communities along a littoral of the Central Adriatic Sea (Italy). Helgoland Marine Research, 64, 101–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Setty, M. G. A. P., & Nigam, R. (1984). Benthic foraminifera as pollution indices in the marine environments of West coast of India. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 89, 421–436.Google Scholar
  79. Simboura, N., & Zenetos, A. (2002). Benthic indicators to use in ecological quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new biotic index. Mediterranean Marine Science, 3(2), 77–111.Google Scholar
  80. Stachowitz, M. (1991). Anoxia in the northern Adriatic Sea: Rapid death, slow recovery. Geological Society, 58, 119–130.Google Scholar
  81. Van der Zwaan, G. J., Duijnstee, I. A. P., Den Dulk, M., Ernst, S. R., Jannink, N. T., & Kouwenhoven, T. J. (1999). Benthic foraminifers: Proxies or problems? A review of paleoecological concept. Earth Science Reviews, 46, 212–236.Google Scholar
  82. Van Duyl, F. C., & Kop, A. J. (1994). Bacterial production in North Sea sediments: Clues to seasonal and spatial variations. Marine Biology, 120, 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vidakovic, J. (1983). The influence of row domestic sewage on density and distribution of meiofauna. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14(84), 88.Google Scholar
  84. Vollenweider, R. A., Giovanardi, E., Montanari, G., & Rinaldi, A. (1998). Characterization of the trophic conditions of marine coastal waters with special reference to the NW Adriatic sea: Proposal for a trophic scale, turbidity and generalized water quality index. Environmetrics, 9, 329–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yanko, V., Ahmad, M., & Kaminski, M. (1998). Morphological deformities of benthic foraminiferal test in response to pollution by heavy metals: Implications for pollution monitoring. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28, 177–200.Google Scholar
  86. Yanko, V., Arnold, A. J., & Parker, W. C. (1999). Effects of marine pollution on benthic foraminifera. In B. K. Sen Gupta (Ed.), Modern foraminifera (pp. 217–235). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher.Google Scholar
  87. Yanko, V., Kronfeld, J., & Flexer, A. (1994). Response of benthic foraminifera to various pollution sources: Implications for pollution monitoring. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 24, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Warwick, R. M. (1986). A new method for detecting pollution effects on marine macrobenthic communities. Marine Biology, 92, 557–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zavatarelli, M., Baretta, J. W., Baretta-Bekker, J. G., & Pinardi, N. (2000). The dynamics of the Adriatic Sea ecosystem. An idealized model study. Deep-Sea Research I, 47, 937–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrizio Frontalini
    • 1
  • Federica Semprucci
    • 1
  • Rodolfo Coccioni
    • 1
  • Maria Balsamo
    • 1
  • Paolo Bittoni
    • 2
  • Anabella Covazzi-Harriague
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Uomo, dell’Ambiente e della Natura (DiSUAN)Università di Urbino ‘Carlo Bo’UrbinoItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento Militare Marittimo di La Spezia, V.le AmendolaLa SpeziaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse (Dip.Te.Ris.)Università di GenovaGenovaItaly

Personalised recommendations