Bioassay as monitoring system for lead phytoremediation through Crinum asiaticum L.
- 243 Downloads
Toxicity of lead in soil is well documented and established. Phytoremediation has gained attention as a cheap, easily applicable, and eco-friendly clean-up technology. Chemical methods are used to assess exact levels and type of pollutants but heavy metal content in soil can also be evaluated indirectly by estimation of phytotoxicity levels using bioassays. Plant bioassays through fast germinating cereals can indicate not only the level of pollution and its effects on growth and survival but also the progress of phytoremediation process. The performance of barley Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings as bioassay for assessment of changes in the levels of lead (Pb) at three concentrations, i.e., 300 (T1), 600 (T2), and 1,200 ppm (T3) in the soil was evaluated while testing the efficiency of Crinum asiaticum L. as a phytoremedial tool. At the first assessment, i.e., 30 DAT (days after treatment) shoot and root lengths of seedlings decreased with increasing concentrations of Pb. As the study progressed, a decrease in levels of Pb was accompanied by better germinability and growth of barley. At 120 DAT seedling growth in all the treatments were comparable to control. In T1, T2, and T3 soils, 74.5%, 83.7%, and 91.2% reduction in lead content was observed at 120 DAT. Highly significant correlations between decreasing pollutant (Pb) content in the soil, seed germination, and seedling growth of barley H. vulgare were found. The differences in root and shoot length as well as overall growth pattern are indicative of the suitability of barley as a bio-monitoring tool.
KeywordsHeavy metal Bio-monitoring Lead Bioaccumulate Bioassay
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Araujo, A. S. F., & Monteiro, R. T. R. (2005). Plant bioassays to assess toxicity of textile sludge compost. Scientia agricola. (Piracicaba, Braz.), 62(3), 286–290.Google Scholar
- Ashrafi, Z. Y., Sadeghi, S., Alizade, H. M., Mashhadi, H. R., & Mohamadi, E. R. (2009). Study of bioassay the allelopathic effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) n-hexane, acetone and waters soluble extracts on six weeds. International Journal of Biology, 1(1), 71–77.Google Scholar
- Blaylock, M. J., & Huang, J. W. (2000). Phytoextraction of metals. In I. Raskin & B. D. Ensley (Eds.), Phytoremediation of toxic metals—Using plants to clean-up the environment (pp. 53–70). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Chaney, R. L., & Ryan, A. J. (1994). Risk based standards for arsenic, lead and cadmium in urban soils (p. 130, ISBN 3-926959-63-0). Frankfurt: DECHEMA.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, S. D., & Ow, D. W. (1996). Promises and prospects of phytoremediation. Plant Physiology, 110, 715–719.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, S. D., Shann, J. R., Crowley, D. E., & Anderson, T. A. (1997). Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil. In E. L. Kruger, T. A. Anderson, & J. R. Coats (Eds.), Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants (pp. 2–19). Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. ACS symposium series no. 664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davies, B. E. (1995). Lead and other heavy metals in urban areas and consequences for the health of their inhabitants. In S. K. Majumdar, E. W. Miller, & F. J. Brenner (Eds.), Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health (pp. 287–307). Easton: The Pennsylvania Academy of Science.Google Scholar
- Evanko, C. R., & Dzombak, D. A. (1997). Remediation of metals—Contaminated soil & groundwater. Technology evaluation report, p. 46, Oct. 1997. TE-97–01 USEPA (Groundwater Remediation Technology Analysis Center).Google Scholar
- Gruenhage, L., & Jager, H. J. (1985). Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum and Pisum sativum. Angew Botany, 59, 11–28.Google Scholar
- Gundersson, C. A., Kostuk, J. M., Mitcell, H. G., Napolitano, G. E., Wicker, L. F., Richmond, J. E., et al. (1997). Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16, 2529–2537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hawrot, M., & Nowak, A. (2005). Monitoring of bioremediation of soil polluted with diesel fuel applying bioassays. Electronic Journal of Polish Agriculture, 8(2). www.ejpau.media.pl/volume8/issue2/art-17.html.
- Helfrich, P., Chefetz, B., Hadar, Y., Chen, Y., & Schnabl, H. (1998). A novel method for determining phytotoxicity in composts. Compost Science and Utilization, 6, 6–13.Google Scholar
- Iqbal, J., & Mushtaq, S. (1987). Effect of lead in germination, early seedling growth, soluble protein and acid phosphatase content in Zea mays. Pakistan Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 30, 853–856.Google Scholar
- Jackson, M. L. (1973). Soil chemical analysis (p. 205). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar
- Jaworski, J. F. (1978). Effect of lead in the environment. Qualitative aspect. Publication no. NRCC. 16736 of Environmental Secretariat, BRCC Publication, Ottawa.Google Scholar
- Kumar, G., Singh, R. P., & Sushila (1992). Nitrate assimilation and biomass production in Sesamum indicum L. seedlings in lead enriched environment. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 215, 124–215.Google Scholar
- Marecik, R., Grajek, W., & Olejnik, A. (1999). Testy korzeniowe jako metoda selekcji roslin o potencjalnych zdolnosciach fitoremediacyjnych [The radicular tests as method of the plants selection about potential phytoremediation abilities]. VI Ogolnopol Symp. Nauk.-Tech. “Biotechnologia Srodowiskowa” w ramach I Krajowego Kongresu Biotechnologii, Wroclaw (pp. 291–298) (in Polish).Google Scholar
- Meagher, R. B., Rugh, C. L., Kandasamy, M. K., Gragson, G., & Wang, N. J. (2000). Engineered phytoremediation of mercury pollution in soil and water using bacterial genes. In W. Terry, & G. Banuelos (Eds.), Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water (pp. 201–219). Berkeley: Annals of Arbor Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- Mukherji, S., & Maitra, P. (1976). Toxic effects of lead on growth and metabolism of germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds on mitosis of onion (Allium cepa) root tip cells. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 14, 519–521.Google Scholar
- Piper, C. S. (1966). Soil and plant analysis. New York: Interscience.Google Scholar
- Rugh, C. L., Bizily, S. P., & Meagher, R. B. (1999). Phytoremediation of environmental mercury pollution. In B. Ensley & I. Raskin (Eds.), Phytoremediation of Toxic metals: Using plants to clean up the environment (pp. 151–169). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Wozny, A., Raman, P., & Mlodzianowski, F. (1982). The effect of kinetin on cytochemical localization of magnesium dependent ATPase in isolated lupin cotyledons. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 5, 345.Google Scholar