A novel environmental indicator for monitoring of pesticides
- 115 Downloads
The identification of an indicator for monitoring pesticides is a very effective analytical approach because it allows one to schedule and simplify the analytical routine. In this study, a new indicator has been designed, which has to be able to define a scale of priorities in the pesticides monitoring. A starting equation was developed involving the escaping tendency of a given substance from a phase (based on the Mackay model I level). The reliability of the indicator was tested by application to a model system, consisting of a defined and limited area, choosing water as matrix over a period of 6 years. A group of marker compounds was also defined to implement the predictive efficacy of the indicator. The results obtained by modeling were compared to those obtained by experimentation of the same model system. The indicator was subsequently and appropriately modified creating a new equation, including a kinetic factor, which considers the environmental degradation processes. The effect of the rectified indicator was consistent with the sales data list of compounds, when applied to the markers. The indicator developed in this study, tested as a model on specific area-phase-period (Province of Siena, water phase, 2000–2006), is applicable to any other area-phase-period, adjusting the partition value of the Mackay model for the case under study.
KeywordsEnvironmental indicator Pesticides monitoring Model system Multi-residual approach
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bacci, E. (1992). Ecotoxicology of organic contaminants. London: Lewis.Google Scholar
- Borroni, M. (2007). WIN-BDF BANCA DATI FITOFARMACI computer package, service pack 4 for Microsoft Windows NT, Prod. Ecospi s.r.l. Milano, Distrib. Ed. “L’informatore Agrario”, Verona.Google Scholar
- Businelli, M. (1991). Il controllo degli inquinamenti in agricoltura; gli inquinanti organici. In Chimica del suolo. P.Sequi coord. Bologna: Patron.Google Scholar
- CHEMFINDER (2000). Scientific Database Gateway. http://www.chemfinder.camsoft.com.
- CPCN (2009). Compendium-Of-Pesticide-Common-Names. http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides.
- CRPV (2009). Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali—Archivio, Fitofarmaci. http://www.net-agree.com/fitofarmaci/.
- EPA (2005). USA Environmental Protection Agency. Document: EPA/600/R-05/053 Method 535. Measurement of chloroacetanilide and other acetamide herbicide degradates in drinking water by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), version 1.1, April 2005, J.A. Shoemaker, M.V. Bassett.Google Scholar
- ExToxNet (1998). EXTENSION TOXYCOLOGY NETWORK. http://www.extoxnet.orst.edu.
- FAO (2007). Pesticide Management. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Events/PMUpdate1.pdf.
- FITOGEST (2009). Il motore di ricerca dei fitosanitari. http://www.fitogest.com.
- Miller, G. T., Jr. (1994). Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Belmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- OSU (2009). OSU-EXTENSION-PESTICIDE-DATABASE. http://npic.orst.edu/ppdmove.htm.
- PAN (2009). PAN Pesticides Database. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Index.html.
- REACH (2006). (Registration, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances) Official Journal of the European Union. Parliament and council regulation (ec) no. 1907/2006 (corrigendum 29 may 2007) and directive 2006/121/ec (Corrigendum 29 May 2007), http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri = oj:l:2006:396:0001:0849:en:pdf.
- Tomlin, C. (1994). The pesticid manual. UK: Crop Protection.Google Scholar