Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 175, Issue 1–4, pp 303–314 | Cite as

Investigation of trace elements in agricultural soils by BCR sequential extraction method and its transfer to wheat plants

  • Dilek Bakircioglu
  • Yasemin Bakircioglu Kurtulus
  • Hilmi Ibar


In this study, soil samples were collected from Edirne, Turkey in both summer and winter seasons and subjected to the modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure in order to investigate the chemical partitioning of metals in soils and to predict heavy metals uptake by wheat grains which grown at the same soils. The samples were subjected to a three stage extraction procedure proposed by the BCR. The three phases that were separated out in the following order: (1) carbonate, exchangeable, (2) Fe–Mn oxides, and (3) organic matter. Metal concentrations of soil fractions and grain samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The wheat samples were prepared to analysis using microwave acid digestion procedure. The pseudo-total concentrations of metals were determined after aqua regia digestion. The analytical accuracy of the method was evaluated by using the Standard Reference Materials (BCR 142R Light Sandy Soil, NIST 2711 Montana Soil, and NIST 2704 Buffalo River Sediment). The sum of the metal contents obtained from the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure and pseudo-total metal contents for soil samples were used to calculate recovery values. In order to evaluate the bioavailability of metals, the relationships between the wheat-metal and soil-extractable metal concentrations were compared.


Modified BCR sequential extraction Soil Wheat grain Bioavailability Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dilek Bakircioglu
    • 1
  • Yasemin Bakircioglu Kurtulus
    • 1
  • Hilmi Ibar
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of ChemistryTrakya UniversityEdirneTurkey

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