Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 172, Issue 1–4, pp 319–327 | Cite as

Comparison of three sequential extraction protocols for the fractionation of potentially toxic metals in coastal sediments

  • Aderonke Oluwabukola Oyeyiola
  • Kehinde O. Olayinka
  • Babajide I. Alo
Article

Abstract

In the determination of the best sequential extraction procedures (SEP) for the speciation of metals in sediment samples from the Lagos lagoon system, three sequential extraction procedures were compared for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The SEP compared included a modified Tessier’s procedure carried out in five steps, while the two other procedures were the three-step original Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) and the modified BCR techniques (four steps). Quantification of the metal concentration was achieved with a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained by the three methods were compared, and the modified BCR and Tessier SEP were found to extract more Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the reducible phase and therefore a decrease in the oxidizable phase than the original BCR SEP. The most mobile elements were found to be Cd, Pb, and Zn. These are of environmental concern, as these potentially toxic metals could be easily released into the aquatic environment with consequent ingestion by aquatic organisms, thereby entering the food chain. The mass balance (percent recovery) was found to be between 85% and 115% in most cases. Prior to the comparison, the analytical performance of the laboratory was tested using a secondary reference material, GLAURM, using the three-step modified BCR procedure. The results showed high reliability of the analytical performance of the laboratory for all the metals considered.

Keywords

Speciation Potentially toxic metals Sediments Lagos lagoon Sequential extraction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brunori, C. L., Galleti, M., Cremisini, C., & Morabito, R. (2004). Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures (original and modified 3 steps BCR procedure) applied to sediments of different origin. Annali di Chimica, 94, 409–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clark, R. B. (1992). Marine pollution (pp. 61–79). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  3. Davey, E. W., Morgan, M. J., & Erickson, S. J. (1973). A biological measurement of copper complexation capacity in seawater. Limnology and Oceanography, 18, 993–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davidson, C. M., Ferreira, P. C. S., & Ure, A. M. (1999). Some sources of variability in application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure recommended by the BCR to industrially-contaminated soil. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 363, 446–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidson, C. M., Urquhart, G. J., Ajmone-Marsan, F., et al. (2006). Fractionation of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from five European cities by means of a harmonized sequential extraction procedure. Analytica Chimica Acta, 565, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Filgueiras, A. V., Lavilla, I., & Bendicho, C. (2002). Chemical sequential extraction for metal partitioning in environmental solid samples. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4, 823–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Greenway, G. M., & Song, Q. J. (2002). An ultrasound accelerated sequential extraction method and its application for element partitioning studies in compost from mixed waste streams. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4, 950–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho, M. D., & Evans, G. J. (1997). Operational speciation of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the NIST Standard Reference Materials 2710 and 2711 (Montana soil) by the BCR sequential extraction procedure and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytical Communication, 34, 363–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Joksic, A. S., Katz, S. A., Horvat, M., & Milacic, R. (2005). Comparison of single and sequential extraction procedures for assessing metal leaching from dredged coastal sediments. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 162, 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kennedy, V. H., Sanchez, A. L., Oughton, D. H., & Rowland, A. P. (1997). Use of single and sequential chemical extractants to assess radionuclide and heavy metal availability from soils for roots uptake. Analyst, 122, 89R–100R.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mester, Z., Cremisini, C., Ghiara, E., & Morabito, R. (1998). Comparison of two sequential extraction procedures for the metal fractionation in sediment samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 359, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mossop, K. F., & Davidson, C. M. (2003). Comparison of original and modified BCR sequential extraction procedures for the fractionation of copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc in soils and sediments. Analytica Chimica Acta, 478, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Perez-Cid, B., Lavilla, I., & Bendicho, C. (1996). Analytical assessment of two sequential extraction schemes for metal partitioning in sewage sludges. Analyst, 121, 1479–1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pueyo, M., Rauret, G., Luck, D., Yli-Halla, M., Muntau, H., Quevauviller, Ph., et al. (2001). Certification of extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in a freshwater sediment, following a collaboratively tested and optimised three-step sequential extraction procedure. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 3, 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Quevauviller, Ph., Ure, A., Muntau, H., & Griepink, B. (1993). Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51, 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Quevauviller, P., Rauret, G., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F., Rubio, R., Ure, A., & Muntau, H. (1997). Certification of trace metal extractable content in a sediment reference material (CRM 601). Science of the Total Environment, 205, 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rauret, G., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F., Sahuquillo, A., Rubio, R., Davidson, C., Ure, A., et al. (1999). Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction prior to the certification of new sediment and soil reference materials. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 1, 57–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stone, M., & Marsalek, J. (1996). Trace metal composition and speciation in street sediment: Sault Ste. Marie, Canada. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 87, 149–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Svete, P., Milacic, R., & Phihlar, B. (2001). Partitioning of Zn, Pb and Cd in river sediments from a lead and zinc mining area using the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 3, 586–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tokalioglu, S., Kartal, S., & Birol, G. (2003). Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures for partitioning of heavy metals in car park dusts. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 5, 468–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tokalioglu, S., Kartal, S., & Elci, L. (2000). Determination of heavy metals and their speciation in lake sediments by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after a four stage sequential extraction procedure. Analytica Chimica Acta, 413, 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ure, A. M., Quevauviller, Ph., Muntau, H., & Griepink, B. (1993). Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonisation of extraction techniques under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 51, 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aderonke Oluwabukola Oyeyiola
    • 1
  • Kehinde O. Olayinka
    • 1
  • Babajide I. Alo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Lagos Akoka-YabaLagosNigeria

Personalised recommendations