Assessment of natural radiation exposure levels and mass attenuation coefficients of lime and gypsum samples used in Turkey
- 83 Downloads
The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in lime and gypsum samples used as building materials in Turkey were measured using gamma spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 38 ± 16, 20 ± 9, and 156 ± 54 Bq kg − 1 for lime and found to be 17 ± 6, 13 ± 5, and 429 ± 24 Bq kg − 1 for gypsum, respectively. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in the samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities (Raeq), indoor absorbed dose rate in the air, the annual effective dose, and gamma and alpha indices. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended limits. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of the samples were determined in the energy range 81–1,332 keV. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It is found that the calculated values and the experimental results are in good agreement.
KeywordsLime Gypsum Radioactivity Mass attenuation coefficients
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Berger, M. J., & Hubbell, J. (1987/1999). XCOM: Photon cross sections database, web version 1.2. Available at http://physics.nist.gov/xcom. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA, 1999 (originally published as NBSIR 87-3597 “XCOM: Photon Cross Section on a Personal Computer”).
- EC (European Commission) (1999). Radiation protection 112. Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Directorate-General Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection.Google Scholar
- ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection (1991). Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Annals of the ICRP, 21(1–3) (publication no. 60).Google Scholar
- ICRP (1994). Protection against Rn-222 at home and at work. Annals of the ICRP, 23(2) (publication no. 65).Google Scholar
- Krieger, V. R. (1981). Radioactivity of construction materials. Betonwerk Fertiteil Technik, 47, 468–473.Google Scholar
- Malanca, A., Pessina, V., & Dallara, G. (1993). Radionuclide content of building materials and gamma-ray dose rates in dwellings of Rio-Grande Do-Norte Brazil. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 48, 199–203.Google Scholar
- OECD (1979). Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by a group of experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- Sorantin, H., & Steger, F. (1984). Natural radioactivity of building materials in Austria. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 7, 59–61.Google Scholar
- Tahir, S. N. A., Jamil, K., Zaidi, J. H., Arif, M., Ahmed, N., & Ahmad, S. A. (2005). Measurements of activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples from Punjab Province of Pakistan and assessment of radiological hazards. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 113, 421–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tufail, M., Nasim-Akthar, Sabiha-Javed, & Tehsin-Hamid (2007). Natural radioactivity hazards of building bricks fabricated from saline soil of two districts of Pakistan. Journal of Radiological Protection, 27, 481–492.Google Scholar
- UNSCEAR (1993). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly. New York: UN.Google Scholar
- UNSCEAR (2000). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly. New York: UN.Google Scholar