Pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam
- 270 Downloads
This study assessed pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Xuan Khe and Hop Ly communes located along the Chau Giang River in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Samples were collected from agricultural areas within and outside of embankments built to prevent flooding. In Xuan Khe, the soils outside of the embankment were more clayey with higher organic matter contents compared with the inside, due to selective deposition during river flooding. Many of the soils contained significant amounts of pesticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dicofol, isoprothiolane, and metalaxyl although their levels were below the maximum allowable concentration set by the Vietnamese government. The spectrum of DDT derivatives found suggested that the source of DDTs was not contaminated dicofol. Soils in Hop Ly resembled soils in Xuan Khe but were relatively sandy; one field showed appreciable contents of DDT derivatives. The ratios of (p,p ′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene + p,p ′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)/∑DDT in the surface and subsurface soils in Hop Ly were 0.34 and 0.57, suggesting that the DDTs originated from recent application. Pesticide residues in soils were not likely to translocate into vegetable crops, except for metalaxyl. High concentrations of cypermethrins in kohlrabi leaves could be ascribed to foliar deposition.
KeywordsPesticide residues DDTs Red River Delta Flooding Soils Vegetables
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- FAOSTAT. (2008). Pesticide consumption in Vietnam. Resource document. FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org/site/424/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=424. Accessed 20 Oct 2008.
- Foth, H. D. (1984). Chapter 6: Soil organic matter. In H. D. Foth (Ed.), Fundamental of soil science (7th ed., pp. 151–168). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Gee, G. W., & Bauder, J. W. (1986). Particle-size analysis. In A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis: Part 1—physical and mineralogical methods (2nd ed., pp. 383–411). Madison: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
- Ha Nam People’s Committee. (2004). Climate and hydrography in Ha Nam Province. Resource document. Ha Nam People’s Committee. www.hanam.gov.vn/index.asp?newsID=512&language=english. Accessed 22 Oct 2008.
- Hornsby, A. G., Wauchope, R. D., & Herner, A. E. (1996). Appendix B: The data. In A. G. Hornsby, R. D. Wauchope, & A. E. Herner, (Ed.), Pesticide properties in the environment (pp. 33–206). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Leet, L. D., & Judson, S. (1960). Running water. In L. D. Leet & S. Judson (Ed.), Physical geology (2nd ed., pp. 159–197). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Minh, N. H., Minh, T. B., Kajiwara, N., Kunisue, T., Subramanian, A., Iwata, H., et al. (2006). Contamination by persistent organic pollutants in dumping sites of Asian developing countries: Implication of emerging pollution sources. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 50, 474–481. doi: 10.1007/s00244-005-1087-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Minh, N. H., Minh, T. B., Iwata, H., Kajiwara, N., Kunisue, T., Takahashi, S., et al. (2007a). Persistent organic pollutants in sediments from Sai Gon-Dong Nai River basin, Vietnam: Levels and temporal trends. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 52, 458–465. doi: 10.1007/s00244-006-0157-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Minh, N. H., Minh, T. B., Iwata, H., Kajiwara, N., Kunisue, T., Takahashi, S., et al. (2007b). Pollution sources and occurrence of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments of the Mekong River Delta, South Vietnam. Chemosphere, 67, 1794–1801. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nelson, D. W., & Sommers, L. E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In A. L. Pace, R. H. Miller, & D. R. Keeney (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis: Part2—chemical and microbiological properties (2nd ed., pp. 149–165). Madison: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science of America.Google Scholar
- Pontius, J., Dilts, R., & Bartlett, A. (2000). Chapter 1: Ten years of IPM field schools. In J. Pontius, R. Dilts, & A. Bartlett (Eds.), From farmer field schools to commune IPM: Ten years of IPM training in Asia (pp. 1–8). Jakarta: FAO Commune IPM Programme.Google Scholar
- Rhoades, J. D. (1982). Cation exchange capacity. In A. L. Pace, R. H. Miller, & D. R. Keeney (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis: Part2—chemical and microbiological properties (2nd ed, pp. 149–165). Madison: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science of America.Google Scholar
- Soil Survey Staff (2006). Keys to soil taxonomy. The 18th World Congress of Soil Science, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
- Sugiura, M. (2004). Case studies on current pesticide use situation in northern mountainous areas in Vietnam. Agrochemicals Japan, 85, 22–25Google Scholar
- TCVN 5941 (1995). Soil quality, pesticide residue limits (TCVN 5941, 1995). Vietnamese Ministry of Science and Technology. http://sunsite.nus.edu.sg/apcel/dbase/vietnam/regs/virsp.html#table1. Accessed 20 Oct 2008.
- Water Quality Conservation Bureau, the Japanese Environmental Agency. (2000). Analytical method for organochlorine pesticides. In Water Quality Conservation Bureau, the Japanese Environmental Agency (Ed.), Analytical methods for environmental pollutants such as pesticides. Tokyo: The National Printing Bureau of the Ministry of Finance. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- Winarto, Y. T. (2004). The evolutionary changes in rice–crop farming: Integrated pest management in Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Southeast Asian Studies, 42, 174–184.Google Scholar
- Yabuta, M., Sakaguchi, Y., Tanizawa, H., Yokoya, Y., Sakaguchi, M., Inagaki, E., et al. (2002). Pesticide residues in imported agricultural products. Abstract for 25th Society of Pesticide Residue Analysis Research, 148–154 (in Japanese).Google Scholar