Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 169, Issue 1–4, pp 169–178 | Cite as

Sequential fractionation of phosphorus in sediments of El-Fayum lakes—Egypt

  • Amaal Mansour Abdel-Satar
  • Mohsen F. Sayed


The amounts and forms of potentially mobile phosphorus (P) in surface sediments of Qarun and Wadi El-Rayan lakes were evaluated during winter and summer using a sequential chemical extraction. Five sedimentary P fractions were separately quantified: loosely sorbed P (NH4Cl-P), iron-associated P (BD-P), calcium- bound P (HCl-P), metal oxide bound P (NaOH-P), and residual P (organic and refractory P). The results indicated that the fractional composition of the examined lakes was different while the total P concentrations were approached. The inorganic P in the surface sediment mainly consisted of Ca-P followed by Fe-P in Qarun Lake, while Al-P took the second order in Wadi El-Rayan lakes. The ranks order of the different P extracts were HCl-P > residual-P ≈ NaOH-P > NH4Cl-P > BD-P and residual-P > NH4Cl-P > HCl-P > NaOH-P > BD-P for Qarun and Wadi El-Rayan lakes, respectively.


Lake sediment Phosphorus Sequential fractionation Qarun and Wadi El-Rayan lakes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abd Ellah, G. R. (1999). Physical limnology of Fayum depression and their budget (p. 140). Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan.Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Satar, A. M., Elewa, A. A., Mekki, A. K. T., & Goher, M. E. (2003). Some aspects on trace elements and major cations of Lake Qarun sediment 25, Egypt. Bulletin Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, 25, 77–97.Google Scholar
  3. Abdel-Satar, A. M., Sayed, M. F., & Goher, M. E. (2009). Recent environmental changes in water and sediment quality of Qarun Lake, Egypt. Limnologica (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Arias, C. A., Bubba, M. D., & Brix, H. (2001). Phosphorus removal by sands for use as media in subsurface flow constructed reed beds. Water Research, 35, 1159–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ball, J. (1939). A contribution to the geography of Egypt (339 pp.). Cairo: Survey and Mines Department.Google Scholar
  6. Baudo, R., Giesy, J. P., & Muntau, H. (1990). Sediments—chemistry and toxicity of in-place pollutants (p. 405). Ann Arbor: Lewis.Google Scholar
  7. Bubba, M. D., Arias, C. A., & Brix, H. (2003). Phosphorus adsorption maximum of sands for use as media in subsurface flow constructed reed beds as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Water Research, 37, 3390–3400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christophoridis, C., & Fytianos, K. (2006). Conditions affecting the release of phosphorus from surface lake sediments. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35, 1181–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diaz, O. A., Reddy, K. R., & Moore, P. A. Jr. (1994). Solubility of inorganic phosphorus in stream water as influenced by pH and calcium concentration. Water Research, 28(8), 1755–1763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edwards, A. C., & Withers, P. J. A. (2008). Transport and delivery of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus from various sources to freshwaters in the UK. Journal of Hydrology, 350, 144–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Shabrawy, G. M. (2001). Ecological studies on macrobenthos in Lake Qarun. Journal of the Egyptian Academic Society for Environmental Development, 2, 29–49.Google Scholar
  12. Fabre, A., Fromard, Fr., & Trichon, V. (1999). Fractionation of phosphate in sediments of four representative mangrove stages (French Guiana). Hydrobiology, 392, 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fytianos, K., & Kotzakioti, A. (2005). Sequential fractionation of phosphorus in lake sediments of Northern Greece. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 100, 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goher, M. E. M. (2002). Chemical studies on the precipitation and dissolution of some chemical elements in Qarun Lake (p. 359). Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University.Google Scholar
  15. Gonsiorczyk, T., Casper, P., & Koschel, R. (1998). Phosphorus binding forms in the sediment of an oligotrophic and an eutrophic hardwater lake of the Baltic district (Germany). Water Science and Technology, 37(3), 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Granéli, W. (1999). Internal phosphorus loading in Lake Ringsjön. Hydrobiologia, 404, 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hieltjes, A., & Lijklema, L. (1980). Fractionation of inorganic phosphates in calcareous sediments. Journal of Environmental Quality, 9(3), 405–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones, R. I., Shaw, P. J., & De Haan, H. (1993). Effects of dissolved humic substances on the speciation of iron and phosphate at different pH and ionic strength. Environmental Science and Technology, 27(6), 1052–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kadlec, R. H., & Knight, R. L. (1996). Treatment wetlands (p. 893). Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
  20. Konsowa, A. H. (2007a). Phytoplankton evolution in a shallow hypertrophic saline lake. Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 32, 109–122.Google Scholar
  21. Konsowa, A. H. (2007b). Trophic status and phytoplankton community structure in Wadi El-Rayan Lakes, Western Desert, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phycology, 8, 53–66.Google Scholar
  22. Konsowa, A. H. (2007c). Epipelic and epiphytic microalgae at Wadi El-Rayan Lakes, Western Desert of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phycology, 8, 39–52.Google Scholar
  23. Lake, B. A., Coolidge, K. M., Norton, S. A., & Amirbahman, A. (2007). Factors contributing to the internal loading of phosphorus from anoxic sediments in six Maine, USA, lakes. Science of the total Environment, 373, 534–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu, M., Hou, L., Xu, S., Ou, D., Yang, Y., & Zhang, B. (2002). Adsorption of phosphate on tidal flat surface sediments from the Yangtze Estuary. Environmental Geology, 42, 657–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mainstone, C. P., Dils, R. M., & Withers, P. J. A. (2008). Controlling sediment and phosphorus transfer to receiving waters—a strategic management perspective for England and Wales. Journal of Hydrology, 350, 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mesnage, V., & Picot, B. (1995). The distribution of phosphate in sediments and its relation with eutrophication of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Hydrobiologia, 197, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mitsch, W. J., & Gosselink, J. G. (2000). Wetlands. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Morse, J. L., Megonigal, J. P., & Walbridge, M. R. (2004). Sediment nutrient accumulation and nutrient availability in two tidal freshwater marshes along the Mattaponi River, Virginia, USA. Biogeochemistry, 69, 175–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murphy, J., & Riley, J. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Paludan, C., & Jensen, H. S. (1995). Sequential extraction of phosphorus in freshwater wetland and lake sediment: significance of humic acids. Wetlands, 15(4), 365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Paludan, C., & Morris, J. T. (1999). Distribution and speciation of phosphorus along a salinity gradient in intertidal marsh sediments. Biogeochemistry, 45, 197–221.Google Scholar
  32. Petticrew, E. L., & Arocena, J. M. (2001). Evaluation of iron-phosphate as a source of internal lake phosphorus loadings. Science of the total Environment, 266, 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Psenner, R., Puesko, R., & Sager, M. (1984). Die Fractionierung Organischer und Anorganischer Phosphorverbindungen von Sedimenten Versuch einer Definition Okologisch Wichtiger Fractionen. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 10, 115–155.Google Scholar
  34. Rydin, E. (2000). Potentially mobile phosphorus in Lake Erken sediment. Water Research, 34(7), 2037–2042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saad, M. A. H., & Hemeda, E. I. M. (2006). Phosphorus species in Lake Qarun sediments, a closed salty Egyptian basin in the arid zone. International Journal of Lakes and Rivers, 1, 51–60.Google Scholar
  36. Saleh, M. A. (1984). Ecological investigation of inorganic pollutants in El-Fayum and El-Rayan aquatic environment. Supreme Council of Universities, FRCU report: 1–54.Google Scholar
  37. Sayed, M. F., & Abdel-Satar, A. M. (2009). Chemical assessment of Wadi El-Rayan Lakes—Egypt. American–Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, 5(1), 53–62.Google Scholar
  38. Scharf, W. (1999). Restoration of the highly eutrophic Lingese Reservoir. Hydrobiologia, 416, 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Song, K. Y., Zoh, K. D., & Kang, H. (2007). Release of phosphate in a wetland by changes in hydrological regime. Science of the Total Environment, 380, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang, S. R., Jin, X. C., Bu, Q., Jiao, L., & Wu, F. C. (2008). Effects of dissolved oxygen supply level on phosphorus release from lake sediments. Colloids and Surfaces, 316, 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, S. R., Jin, X. C., Zhao, H. C., & Wu, F. C. (2006). Phosphorus fractions and its release in the sediments from the shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River area in China. Colloids and Surfaces, 273, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wauer, G., Gonsiorczyk, T., Casper, P., & Koschel, R. (2005). P-immobilisation and phosphatase activities in lake sediment following treatment with nitrate and iron. Limnologica, 35, 102–108.Google Scholar
  43. Wetzel, R. G. (2001). Limnology: Lake and river ecosystems (p. 50). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Zhang, T., Wang, X., & Jin, X. (2007). Variations of alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu). Environmental Pollution, 150, 288–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou, Q., Gibson, C., & Zhu, Y. (2001). Evaluation of phosphorus bioavailability in sediments of three contrasting lakes in China and the U.K. Chemosphere, 42, 221–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zwolsman, J. J. G. (1994). Seasonal variability and biogeochemistry of phosphorus in the Scheldt Estuary, south-west Netherlands. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 39, 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Inland Water and Aquaculture BranchNational Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF)CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations