Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 167, Issue 1–4, pp 437–446 | Cite as

Evaluation of pollution load of Lahore Canal by quantification of various pollutants through physicochemical characterisation

  • Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz
  • Muhammad Hanif
  • Hamid Mukhtar
  • Zahoor Ahmed
  • Sumaira Usman


The work describes the physicochemical analysis of the water samples collected from Lahore Canal to evaluate pollution load at different points of the canal. Different physical and chemical pollutants such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved and suspended solids, turbidity, chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, oils and grease, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were analysed. The data was analysed through analysis of variance, which showed that the p values for dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), BOD, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, oil and grease, sulphates, and nitrates are <0.05, while p value of temperature, pH, and chlorides are 1.000, 0.984, and 0.070, respectively, which are >0.05. Further regression analysis revealed that the simple line regression modal is fit for turbidity and TSS, electrical conductivity and TDS, COD and DO, BOD and DO, and BOD and COD. The studies reveal that Lahore Canal is receiving a considerable amount of physical and chemical pollutants at different points.


Pollution Lahore Canal BOD COD Turbidity Chlorides Electrical conductivity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmed, K. (2000). Environmental engineering laboratory (p. 55). Lahore: A-One.Google Scholar
  2. APHA (1992). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (18th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public health Association.Google Scholar
  3. Aubrey, T. H. (1950). Manual of British water supply practice. Cambridge: Institution of Water Engineers.Google Scholar
  4. Camp Dresser & McKee (1999). Lake Merced water sanitary survey November 1999 Report. San Francisco: San Francisco Public Utilities Commission.Google Scholar
  5. Eaton, A. D., & AWWA (2005). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (19th ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  6. Eckenfelder, J. W. (1992). Industrial water pollution control (2nd ed.). New York: Mc. Graw Hill.Google Scholar
  7. El-Hinnawi, E., & Hashmi, M. (1982). Global environmental issues. Dublin: Tycooly.Google Scholar
  8. Greenberg, E., Clesceri, L. S., & Eaton, A. D. (1992). Standard method for examination of water and waste water (18th ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  9. HACH Water Analysis Handbook (2002). 4th ed. Colorado: HACH.Google Scholar
  10. Jirka, A. M., & Carter, M. J. (1975). Micro semi-automated analysis of surface and wastewaters for chemical oxygen demand. Analytical Chemistry, 47(8), 1397–1402. doi: 10.1021/ac60358a004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Margaleff, R. (1996). Limnology now. A paradigm of planetary problems (pp. 220–222). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  12. Mishra, P. C. (1990). Foundation of air and water pollution. New Delhi: Ashish.Google Scholar
  13. Prather, K., Kinman, B., Esisk, M., Dobroth, D., & Gordon, M. (1982). Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 43, 27–42.Google Scholar
  14. Rump, H. H., & Krist, H. (1992). Laboratory manual for the examination of water, waste water and soil (2nd ed., pp. 90–110). New York: VCH.Google Scholar
  15. Terry, L. A. (1996). Water pollution. Environmental Law Practice, 4, 19–29.Google Scholar
  16. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. (1992). Environment and Urban Affairs Division, Government of Pakistan. Karachi: GOP/JRC-IUCN (ISBN 969-8141-00-6).Google Scholar
  17. USEPA (1991). Volunteer lake monitoring: A method’s manual. EPA 440/4-91-002. Washington: Office of Water, US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz
    • 1
  • Muhammad Hanif
    • 2
  • Hamid Mukhtar
    • 3
  • Zahoor Ahmed
    • 4
  • Sumaira Usman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of GujratPunjabPakistan
  2. 2.APEX Environmental LaboratoryLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Industrial BiotechnologyGovt. College UniversityLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Department of StatisticsUniversity of GujratPunjabPakistan

Personalised recommendations