Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 165, Issue 1–4, pp 399–406 | Cite as

Interseasonal hydrological characteristics and variabilities in surface water of tropical estuarine ecosystems within Niger Delta, Nigeria



We present a seasonal and baseline survey of selected physicochemical parameters in epipelagic samples from Qua Iboe (QIB) and Cross River (CRV) estuaries in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The parameters analysed were temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus, Ca2 + , Mg2 + , Na + , K +  (exchangeable cations) and \({\rm SO}_{4}^{2-}\), Cl − , \({\rm NH}_{4}^{+}\) and \({\rm NO}_{3}^{-}\). The results showed that the physicochemical parameters exhibited spatiotemporally explicit variabilities. The mean levels of the parameters were higher during the wet season (June–September) except salinity, DO, Cl −  and \({\rm NH}_{4}^{+}\) in CRV, whilst QIB recorded higher mean levels for temperature, pH, salinity, BOD, TOC, \({\rm SO}_{4}^{2-}\), Cl −  and \({\rm NH}_{4}^{+}\) during the dry season (November–February). Significant seasonal variability was recorded for salinity, DO, turbidity, TSS, \({\rm SO}_{4}^{2-}\) and \({\rm NH}_{4}^{+}\) levels in CRV and for turbidity, DO, BOD, TSS, TOC, available P, Na, Cl −  and \({\rm NO}_{3}^{-}\) levels in QIB. This study confirmed that the degree of variability of the various physicochemical surface water quality indicators is dependent on the prevalent environmental estuarine factors.


Water chemistry Estuary Pollution Niger Delta Physicochemical compositions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akpan, A. W. (2005). The dynamics of nitrate concentrations in water column and sediments in a tropical coastal river (Qua Iboe River, Nigeria) in relation to precipitation. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 11(3), 371–377.Google Scholar
  2. APHA (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Associations, APHA-AWWA-WPEF.Google Scholar
  3. APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Associations, APHA-AWWA-WPEF.Google Scholar
  4. Asuquo, F. E. (1991). Tarballs in Ibeno-Okposo beach of South Eastern Nigeria. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22, 150–151. doi: 10.1016/0025-326X(91)90185-U.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asuquo, F. E., Ewa-Oboho, I., Asuquo, E. F., & Udoh, P. J. (2004). Fish species used as biomarker for heavy metals and hydrocarbon contaminations for the Cross River, Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 24, 29–37. doi: 10.1023/B:ENVR.0000046344.04734.39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, N. U., & Essien, J. P. (2009). Petroleum hydrocarbons contamination of sediments and accumulation in Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from the Qua Iboe Mangrove Ecosystem, Nigeria. Current Science, 96(2), 238–244.Google Scholar
  7. Benson, N. U., & Etesin, M. U. (2008). Metal contamination of surface water, sediment and Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula of Iko River and environmental impact due to Utapete gas flare station, Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 28(3), 195–202. doi: 10.1007/s10669-007-9127-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benson, N. U., Udosen, E. D., & Akpabio, O. (2008). Interseasonal distribution and partitioning of heavy metals in subtidal sediment of Qua Iboe Estuary and associated Creeks, Niger Delta (Nigeria). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 146(1–3), 253–265. doi: 10.1007/s10661-007-0077-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ekwere, S. J., Akpan, E. B., & Ntekim, E. E. U. (1992). Geochemical studies of sediments in Qua Iboe estuary and associated creeks, Southeastern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Applied Sciences, 2, 91–95.Google Scholar
  10. Essien, J. P., Benson, N. U., & Antai, S. P. (2008). Seasonal dynamics of physicochemical properties and heavy metal burdens in Mangrove sediments and surface water of the brackish Qua Iboe Estuary, Nigeria. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 90(2), 259–273. doi: 10.1080/02772240701550497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kakulu, S. E., & Osibanjo, O. (1992). Pollution studies of Nigerian Rivers: Trace metal levels of surface waters in the Niger Delta area. The International Journal of Environmental Studies, 4, 287–292. doi: 10.1080/00207239208710768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kiely, G. (1998). Environmental engineering (979 pp.). UK: Irwin/McGraw-Hill International Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Liao, J. F. (1990). The chemical properties of the mangrove Solonchak in the northeast part of Hainan Island. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 9(4), 67–72. Suppl.Google Scholar
  14. Offiong, O. E., & Edet, A. E. (1998). Surface water quality evaluation in Odukpani, Calabar Flank, south-eastern Nigeria. Environmental Geology, 36(3/4), 343–348. doi: 10.1007/s002540050350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ouyang, Y., Nkedi-Kizza, P., Wu, Q. T., Shinde, D., & Huang, C. H. (2006). Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality. Water Research, 40, 3800–3810. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.08.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Popek, E.P. (Ed.) (2003). Sampling and analysis of environmental pollutants: A complete guide (356 pp.). USA: Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Radojevic, M., & Bashkin, V. N. (1999). Practical environmental analysis. Royal Society of Chemistry (pp. 371–374). UK: Paston Prepress.Google Scholar
  18. Raj, N., & Azeez, P. A. (2009). Spatial and temporal variation in surface water chemistry of a tropical river, the river Bharathapuzha, India. Current Science, 96(2), 245–251.Google Scholar
  19. Teugels, G. C., Reid, F. M., & King, R. P. (1992). Fishes of the Cross River Basin (Cameroon–Nigeria): Taxonomy, zoogeography, ecology and conservation. Annals Science Zoologiques, 1, 216–248.Google Scholar
  20. Udosen, E. D. (2001). Variations in oxygen and some related pollution parameters in some streams in Itu area of Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 12(1), 75–80.Google Scholar
  21. Udosen, E. D., & Benson, N. U. (2006). Spatio-temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments and surface water in Stubbs Creek, Nigeria. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 1(3), 292–300. doi: 10.3923/tasr.2006.292.300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Valente, J. P. S., Padilha, M. M., & Silva, A. M. (1997). Dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as pollution parameters in the Lavapés/Botucatu—SP brook. Eclética Química, 22, 49–66.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McKinley Ocean Biogeochemistry Research GroupUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations