Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand
- 418 Downloads
Measurements of landfill methane emission were performed at nine solid waste disposal sites in Thailand, including five managed sanitary landfills (four deep and one shallow landfills) and four unmanaged landfills (three deep and one shallow dumpsites). It was found that methane emissions during the rainy season were about five to six times higher than those during the winter and summer seasons in the case of managed landfills and two to five times higher in the case of unmanaged landfills. Methane emission estimate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model was compared with the actual field measurement from the studied disposal sites with methane correction factors and methane oxidation factors that were obtained by error function analysis with default values of half-life parameters. The methane emissions from the first-order decay model from the IPCC Waste Model yielded fair results compared to field measurements. The best fitting values of methane correction factor were 0.65, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.1 for deep landfills, shallow landfills, deep dumpsites, and shallow dumpsites, respectively. Using these key parameters in the case of Thailand, it was estimated that 89.22 Gg of methane were released from solid waste disposal sites into the atmosphere in 2006.
KeywordsLandfill gas Methane emission Flux chamber IPCC Waste Model Methane correction factor
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chomsurin, C. (1997). Evaluation of gas migration and methane oxidation in domestic solid waste landfill. Master’s thesis, Asian Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Cossu, R., Andreottola, G., & Muntoni, A. (1996). Modelling landfilling gas production. In T. H. Christensen, R. Cossu, & R. Stegmann (Eds.), Landfilling of waste: Biogas (pp. 237–268). London: E&FN Spon.Google Scholar
- Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D. W., et al. (2007). Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, & H. L. Miller (Eds.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Frøiland Jensen, J. E., & Pipatti, R. (2002). CH4 emissions from solid waste disposal. In IPCC, 2002. Background papers. IPCC expert meetings on good practice guidance and uncertainty management in national greenhouse gas inventories, IPCC-NGGIP, IGES, Hayama, Japan (pp. 419–465).Google Scholar
- IPCC (2006). IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, prepared by the national greenhouse gas inventories programme. In H. S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, & K. Tanabe (Eds.) IGES, Japan. (published)Google Scholar
- Office of Environmental Policy and Planning (OEPP) (2000) Thailand’s national greenhouse gas inventory 1994 (p. 118). Bangkok, Thailand: Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment.Google Scholar
- Oonk, J., Weenk, A., Coops, O., & Luning, L. (1994). Validation of landfill gas formation models. In Institute of environment and energy technology. Report no. 94–315.Google Scholar
- Peck, J., Bentley, H., & Hudgins, M. (2007). Basic to support the development of a new methodology to determine a voided greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerobic stabilization of landfills. In Proceedings Sardinia 2007, eleventh international waste management and landfill symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 1–5 October 2007.Google Scholar
- Perera, M. D. N., Hettiaratchi, J. P. A., & Achari, G. (1999). A mathematical model to improve the accuracy of gas emission measurements from landfills. In Proceedings Sardinia 99, seventh international waste management and landfill symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 4–8 October 1999.Google Scholar
- Pollution Control Department (PCD) (2004). Surveying and evaluation of physical compositions of MSW. Bangkok: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. (in Thai).Google Scholar
- Pollution Control Department (PCD) (2005). Report on Thailand state of pollution. Bangkok: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.Google Scholar
- Rolston, D. E. (1986). Gas flux. In A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis, second ed. American society agronomy and soil science society. American monograph no. 9 (pp. 1103–1119). Madison: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
- Thailand Environment Institute (TEI) (1996). Annual conference “Linking local solution to global needs: Thailand’s environment agenda in the 21 century” Climate change—Local solution for global problems.Google Scholar
- Thailand Environment Monitor (2003). A joint publication of the Pollution Control Department (PCD) of Thailand’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE), the World Bank, the United States—Asia Environmental Partnership (USAEP), and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). http://www.worldbank.or.th/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/THAILANDEXTN/0,contentMDK:20206649~menuPK:333323~pagePK:141137~piPK:217854~theSitePK:333296,00.html Retrieved 30 June 2006.
- Towprayoon, S., & Masniyon, M. (1999). Calculation of methane emission from landfill using country default value. In Proceeding of inter-regional symposium on sustainable development (ISSD) 18–20 May. Kanchanaburi, Thailand.Google Scholar
- USEPA (1998). Landfill air emissions estimation model (Version 2.01). EPA-68-D10117, EPA 68-D3-0033, US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- USEPA (2006). Global anthropogenic non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: 1900–2020. EPA Report 430-R-06-003.Google Scholar
- Visvanathan, C., Trankler, J., Joseph, K., Chiemchaisri, C., Basnayake, B. F. A., & Gongming, Z. (2004). Municipal solid waste management in Asia. In Asian Regional Research Program on Environmental Technology (ARRPET). Asian Institute of Technology Publications. ISBN: 974-417-258-1.Google Scholar