Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 162, Issue 1–4, pp 237–250 | Cite as

Occurrence of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water of Taiwan

  • H. H. Chang
  • H. H. Tung
  • C. C. Chao
  • G. S. Wang


In this study, water samples were collected from 86 water treatment plants for analysis of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) from February to March, 2007 and from July to August, 2007. Both seasonal and geographical variations of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water of Taiwan were presented. The results showed that the five HAA concentrations (HAA5) were 1.0–38.9 μg/L in the winter and 0.2–46.7 μg/L in the summer; and the total THMs were ND-99.4 μg/L in the winter and ND-133.2 μg/L in the summer. For samples taken from the main Taiwan island, dichloroacetic acid (29.4–31.7%) and trichloroacetic acid (25.3–27.6%) were the two major HAA species, and trichloromethane was the major THM species (49.9–62.2%) in finished water. For water treatment plants located on the offshore islands outside of Taiwan, high bromide concentration was found in raw water, and higher percentage of brominated THMs and HAAs were formed in the overall formation. A statistically significant (P < 0.005) logarithmic linear regression model was found to be useful to describe the correlations between TTHM and HAA5 or nine HAAs (HAA5 = 1.219 ×TTHM 0.754, R 2 = 0.658; HAA9 = 1.824 ×TTHM 0.735, R 2 = 0.678). No apparent difference was observed for DBPs concentrations between finished water and distribution samples in this study.


Trihalomethanes Haloacetic acids Drinking water Disinfection by-products 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. H. Chang
    • 1
  • H. H. Tung
    • 2
  • C. C. Chao
    • 2
  • G. S. Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public HealthNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Engineering, College of EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China

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