Assessment of pesticide residues in freshwater areas affected by rice paddy effluents in Southern Japan
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Pesticide residues in five freshwater areas that are directly affected by rice paddy effluents in southern Japan were measured to determine their maximum concentrations and temporal variations. Water samples were collected every week during the 2005 rice planting season in Kagoshima Prefecture and stations were established in Amori River, Sudo River, Nagaida River (that drains into the bigger Kotsuki River), rice paddy drainage canal, and wastewater reservoir (that collects effluents from rice paddy fields). Of the 14 target pesticides examined, a total of 11 were detected in all stations. Mefenacet, fenobucarb, and flutolanil were the three pesticides with the highest maximum concentrations and were also detected frequently. Analysis of temporal variations of pesticides showed that herbicides had relatively higher concentrations in the earlier stages of the rice planting season, while insecticides and fungicides had relatively higher concentrations at the later stages. There was no significant difference among stations with regards to the temporal patterns of the top three pesticides. The calculated toxic units were less than 1 in all stations, implying low or negligible environmental risk of pesticides detected to freshwater organisms.
KeywordsPesticides Rice paddy canal Rivers Wastewater reservoir Concentrations Temporal variation
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