Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 159, Issue 1–4, pp 465–473 | Cite as

Surface and subsurface water quality appraisal for irrigation



Use of irrigation water available from various sources in agriculture is justified on agronomic and economic grounds but care must be taken to minimize its adverse environmental and health impacts. During the study 44 water samples, available from the various resources viz., canal, sewage pipe line, tube wells in confined aquifers, tube wells in unconfined aquifers, and wells in the Chaka block district Allahabad, were chemically analyzed to check its suitability for irrigation and to classify it according to amount of salts present. The analysis reveals that most of the samples were within the lower alkalinity limit (pH 7.17–8.42), except sewage water (pH 7.34–9.04). The electrical conductivity of the samples ranged from 0.26 to 1.37 millimhos/cm. Potassium, sodium, calcium, and phosphorus are all found to be in permissible range except one sample in the village Kuria in which Na percentage was found in doubtful category. The other parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, SAR (1.17–2.74), residual sodium carbonate, RSC (−4.46 to −1.07), and soluble sodium percentage, SSP (63.97–28.15) were also found below the permissible limit.


Water quality Surface water Ground water Sewage irrigation Salinity Sodium hazard 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil water Land Engineering and ManagementAllahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed UniversityAllahabadIndia

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