Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers
- 470 Downloads
Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (δ 15N, δ 13C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected 13C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected 13C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.
KeywordsStable isotopes Metals Carp Mississippi River Illinois River Invasive species
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cole, M. L., Valiela, I., Kroeger, K. D., Tomasky, G. L., Cebrian, J., Wigand, C., et al. (2004). Assessment of a δ 15N isotopic method to indicate anthropogenic eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33, 124–132.Google Scholar
- Fitzpatrick, F. A., Scudder, B. C., Crawford, J. K., Sieverling, J. B., & Schmidt, A. R. (1995). Surface water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin–Major and trace elements in water, sediment, and biota, 1978 through 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4045, (p. 254).Google Scholar
- Fry, B. (2006). Stable isotope ecology (p. 308). NY: Springer Science + Business, Media LLC.Google Scholar
- Groschen, G. E., Harris, M. A., King, R. B., Terrio, P. J., & Warner, K. L. (2000). Water quality in the lower Illinois River Basin, Illinois, 1995–98: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1209, 36 p. http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/circ1209/. Accessed 29 October, 2007.
- Hunter, R. G., Carroll, J. H., & Butler, J. S. (1981). The relationship of trophic level to arsenic burden in fish of a southern Great Plains lake. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 1, 121–127.Google Scholar
- Jardine, T. D., Kidd, K. A., & Fisk, A. T. (2006). Applications, considerations, and sources of uncertainty when using stable isotope analysis in ecotoxicology. Environmental Science & Technology, 33, 108–121.Google Scholar
- Kamman, N. C., Burgess, N. M., Driscoll, C. T., Simonin, H. A., Goodale, W., Linehan, J., et al. (2005). Mercury in freshwater fish of Northeast North America—A geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases. Ecotoxicology (London, England), 14, 163–180. doi:10.1007/s10646-004-6267-9.Google Scholar
- Legendre, P., & Legendre, L. (1998). Numerical ecology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
- Mason, R. P., Laporte, J.-M., & Andres, S. (2000). Factors controlling the bioaccumulation of mercury, methylmercury, arsenic, selenium, and cadmium by freshwater invertebrates and fish. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 38, 283–297. doi:10.1007/s002449910038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McClelland, J. W., & Valiela, I. (1998). Linking nitrogen in estuarine producers to land derived sources. Limnology and Oceanography, 43, 577–585.Google Scholar
- Post, D. M. (2002). Using stable isotopes to estimate trophic position: Models, methods, and assumptions. Ecology, 83, 703–718.Google Scholar
- Radke, R. J., & Kahl, U. (2002). Effects of a filter-feeding fish [silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.)] on phyto- and zooplankton in a mesotrophic reservoir: Results from an enclosure experiment. Freshwater Biology, 47, 2337–2344. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00993.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rogowski, D., Soucek, D., Chick, J., Dettmers, J., Pegg, M., Johnson, S., et al. (2005). A preliminary ecotoxicological assessment of Asian carp species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. Illinois Natural History Survey, Technical Report 05/05.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, A. R., & Blanchard, S. F.(1996). Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin: Results of investigation through April 1992. United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations Report 96-4223. http://il.water.usgs.gov/nawqa/uirb/pubs/reports/WRIR_96-4223/index.html. Accessed 21 January 2005.
- Schmitt, C. J., & Brumbaugh, W. G. (1990). National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in freshwater fishes of the United States, 1976–1984. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 19, 731–747. doi:10.1007/BF01183991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xu, J., & Xie, P. (2004). Studies on the food web structure of Lake Donghu using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 19, 645–650.Google Scholar