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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 144, Issue 1–3, pp 277–283 | Cite as

Development of an integrated sensor to measure odors

  • Guoliang Qu
  • Moremi M. Omotoso
  • Mohamed Gamal El-Din
  • John J. R. Feddes
Article

Abstract

Odorous air samples collected from several sources were presented to an olfactometer, an electronic nose, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detector and an ammonia (NH3) detector. The olfactometry measurements were used as the expected values while measurements from the other instrumentation values became input variables. Five hypotheses were established to relate the input variables and the expected values. Both linear regression and artificial neural network analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Principal component analysis was utilized to reduce the dimensionality of the electronic nose measurements from 33 to 3 without significant loss of information. The electronic nose or the H2S detector can individually predict odor concentration measurements with similar accuracy (R 2 = 0.46 and 0.50, respectively). Although the NH3 detector alone has a very poor relationship with odor concentration measurements, combining the H2S and NH3 detectors can predict odor concentrations more accurately (R 2 = 0.58) than either individual instrument. Data from the integration of the electronic nose, H2S, and NH3 detectors produce the best prediction of odor concentrations (R 2 = 0.75). With this accuracy, odor concentration measurements can be confidently represented by integrating an electronic nose, and H2S and NH3 detectors.

Keywords

Odor Electronic nose AromaScan Concentration Measurement Hydrogen sulfide Ammonia 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoliang Qu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Moremi M. Omotoso
    • 2
  • Mohamed Gamal El-Din
    • 1
  • John J. R. Feddes
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Environment CanadaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.EdmontonCanada

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