Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 141, Issue 1–3, pp 287–296 | Cite as

Assessment of water quality of Manchar Lake in Sindh (Pakistan)

  • Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi
  • Syed Ghulam Sarwar Shah
  • Mohammad Yar Khuhawar


Manchar Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in Pakistan. The Lake has received less fresh water in past few years. In addition, drainage water is being discharged in the Lake through Main Nara Valley Drain (MNVD) since many years. Consequently, concern has grown regarding the water quality of the Lake. The aim of this study was to assess the water quality of Manchar Lake and MNVD and the objectives were to determine physiochemical properties and the concentrations of common cations and anions as well as seven trace metals i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe, Pb and Cd. The concentration of the trace metals were determined by simultaneous preconcentration and solvent extraction using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Results of physicochemical parameters of Manchar Lake water samples showed mean pH 8.4 (±0.2), conductivity 2,310.3 (±581.3) μS cm−1 and hardness (as CaCO3) 213.1 (±62.3) mg l−1. Mean concentrations of cations and anions were Na 521.5 (±49.7), Cl 413.6 (±225.7), Ca 70.7 (±12.9), Mg 56.2 (±28.9), K 17.6 (±6.5), \( {\text{NO}}^{ - }_{3} \) 0.34 (±0.2) and \( {\text{PO}}^{{3 - }}_{4} \) 0.02 (±0.01) mg l−1. Mean concentrations of trace metals were Zn 15.7 (±1), Fe 12 (±3.5), Pb 9 (±2.7), Cu 8.9 (±7.7), Ni 4.3 (±3.4), Co 4 (±3.4) and Cd 1.1 (±1) μg l−1. MNVD water samples showed mean pH 8.9 (±0.8), conductivity 1,735.7 (±567.8) μS cm−1 and hardness (as CaCO3) 184.8 (±32.4) mg l−1. In MNWD, the mean concentrations of cations and anions were Na 482.7 (±11.7), Cl 395.7 (±271.5), Ca 79.1 (±23.5), Mg 54.2 (±28.1), K 26.2 (±21.3), NO−3 0.5 (±0.3) and \( {\text{PO}}^{{3 - }}_{4} \) 0.1 (±0.1) mg l−1. Mean concentrations of trace metals observed in MNWD water were Fe 14.9(±3.5), Cd 8.3 (±9.4), Pb 6.9 (±2.4), Cu 6.6 (±3.1), Zn 6.2 (±1.8), Co 4.5 (±2.7), and Ni 3.5 (±2.9) μg l−1. The pH of both Manchar Lake and MNVD waters and concentration of Pb in Manchar Lake and concentration of Cd in MNVD water were higher than the World Health Organisation’s guideline values for the drinking water quality. The water quality of Manchar Lake was found degraded.


Water quality assessment Trace metals Manchar Lake Pakistan Sindh Solvent extraction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi
    • 1
  • Syed Ghulam Sarwar Shah
    • 2
  • Mohammad Yar Khuhawar
    • 1
  1. 1.M. A. Kazi Institute of ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Centre for the Study of Health, School of Social Sciences and LawBrunel UniversityUxbridgeUK

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