Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals in the natural vegetation growing on fly ash lagoons: a field study from Santaldih thermal power plant, West Bengal, India
- 514 Downloads
A field study was conducted in the fly ash lagoons of Santandih Thermal Power Plant located in West Bengal (India) to find out total, EDTA and DTPA extractable metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in root and shoot portion of the naturally growing vegetation. Fly ash sample has alkaline pH and low conductivity. The concentration of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni were found higher than weathered fly ash and natural soil, where as Co, Cd and Cr were found traces. Five dominant vegetation namely, Typha latifolia, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Amaranthus defluxes, Saccharum spontaenum and Cynodon dactylon were collected in the winter months (November–December). Bioaccumulation of metals in root and shoot portions were found varied significantly among the species, but all concentration were found within toxic limits. Correlation between total, DTPA and EDTA extractable metals viz. root and shoot metals concentration were studied. Translocation factor (TF) for Cu, Zn and Ni were found less than unity, indicates that these metals are immobilized in the root part of the plants. Metals like Mn have TF greater than unity. The study infers that natural vegetation removed Mn by phytoextraction mechanisms (TF > 1), while other metals like Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were removed by rhizofiltration mechanisms (TF < 1). The field study revealed that T. latifolia and S. spontaenum plants could be used for bioremediation of fly ash lagoon.
KeywordsFly ash lagoons Natural vegetation Bioaccumulation Translocation Metals
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alloway, B. J. (1990). Heavy metals in soils. (p. 339). Glasgow, UK: Blackie .Google Scholar
- Anon. (2002). The potential for beneficial reuse of coal fly ash in Southwest Virginia mining environments. Virginia cooperative extension, Pub No. 460–134, January 2002.Google Scholar
- Chaney, R. L. (1993). Zinc phytotoxicity. In S. D. Robson (Ed.), Proc. of the Int. Symp. Zinc in Soils and Plants, The Univ. of Western Australia, 27–28 Sept. 1993 (pp. 135–150). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (1992). Trace elements in soils and plants (2nd ed.) (p.365). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Kumar, V. (1996). Fly ash utilization: A mission mode approach. In V. S. Raju et al. (Eds.), Ash ponds and ash disposal systems (pp. 283). New Delhi: Narosa Publishing House.Google Scholar
- Maiti, S. K., & Nandhini, S. (2004). Bioavailability of Metal in Flyash and their bioaccumulation in naturally occurring vegetation. NHEEI, Bangalore, Novemver 17–19, 2004.Google Scholar
- Maiti, S. K., & Nandhini, S. (2005). Heavy metal distribution pattern in flyash in CTTP (Jharkhand) and in spontaneously occurring vegetation. In D. P. Tripathy & B. K. Pal (Eds.), Proceedings of technological advancement and environmental challenges in mining & allied industries in the 21st century (TECMAC-2005), NIT Rourkella, February 05–06 (pp. 477–486).Google Scholar
- Maiti, S. K., Singh, G., & Srivastava, S. B. (2005). Study of the possibility of utilizing fly ash for back filling and reclamation of opencast mines: Plot and Pot scale experiments with Chandrapura Fly Ash. In International Congress on Fly Ash, TIFAC, 4–7th December 2005, New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Reeves, R. D. (2002). Metal tolerance and metal accumulating plant exploration and exploitation. In 9th New Phytologist symp. on Heavy metals and plants. Philadelphia.Google Scholar
- Singh, V. K. (2006). Role of coal industry in insuring national energy security. MGMI Transactions, 102(1–2), 1–20.Google Scholar
- Turiel-Fernandez, J. L., Carvalho de, W., Cabafias, M., Querol, X., & Lopez-Soler, A. (1994), Mobility of heavy metals from coal fly ash. Environmental Geology, 23(4), 264–270.Google Scholar