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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 118, Issue 1–3, pp 337–354 | Cite as

A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Assess Groundwater Pollution Levels Below Agricultural Fields

  • Ayse Muhammetoglu
  • Ahmet Yardimci
Article

Abstract

A fuzzy logic approach has been developed to assess the groundwater pollution levels below agricultural fields. The data collected for Kumluca Plain of Turkey have been utilized to develop the approach. The plain is known with its intensive agricultural activities, which imply excessive application of fertilizers. The characteristics of the soils and underlying groundwater for this plain were monitored during the years 1999 and 2000. Additionally, an extensive field survey related to the types and yields of crops, fertilizer application and irrigation water was carried out. Both the soil and groundwater have exhibited high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and salinity with considerable spatial and temporal variations. The pollution level of groundwater at several established stations within the plain were assessed using Fuzzy Logic. Water Pollution Index (WPI) values are calculated by Fuzzy Logic utilizing the most significant groundwater pollutants in the area namely nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphate together with the groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The results of the calculated WPI and the monitoring study have yielded good agreement. WPI indicated high to moderate water pollution levels at Kumluca plain depending on factors such as agricultural age, depth to groundwater, soil characteristics and vulnerability of groundwater to pollution. Fuzzy Logic approach has shown to be a practical, simple and useful tool to assess groundwater pollution levels.

Keywords

agriculture fertilizers Fuzzy Logic groundwater nitrate nitrite orthophosphate pollution Seepage Index Number Water Pollution Index 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental EngineeringAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Industrial Automation ProgramAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey

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