Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 110, Issue 1–3, pp 129–139 | Cite as

Extractable Hydrocarbons, Nickel and Vanadium Contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo Oil Spill Polluted Soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria

  • Leo C. Osuji
  • Samuel O. Adesiyan


An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m × 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0–15 cm) and subsurface (15–30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02–4.54 and 1.60–4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two “diagnostic” trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite–citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p < 0.05) in the oil-polluted soils, especially at subsurface depth. Whilst the oil spillage could be said to be indirectly responsible for the enhanced concentrations of nickel and vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain.


crude oil hydrocarbon nickel Niger Delta oil spill polluted soils vanadium 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, M.: 1961, Introduction to Soil Microbiology, John Wiley, New York and London, pp. 402–421.Google Scholar
  2. Blummer, M., Maulin, M. M. and Ginland, R. R. L.: 1970, ‘A polyunsaturated hydrocarbon (5,6,9,12,13,18-heneicosahexaene) in the marine food web’, Marine Biol. 6, 226–236.Google Scholar
  3. Duffus, J. H.: 1980, Environmental Toxicology, Edward Arnold Publishers Limited, London, pp. 21–103.Google Scholar
  4. Hesser, G. F.: 1977, Textbook of Soils Analysis, John Murra Limited, New Jersey, pp. 126–148.Google Scholar
  5. Hunt, J. M.: 1996, Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, pp. 231–238.Google Scholar
  6. NDES: 1999, Niger Delta Environmental Survey, Phase 1, Report, Vol. 1 Environmental and Socio-Economic Characteristics (Revised Edition), Technical Report submitted by Environmental Resource Managers Limited, Lagos, pp. 101–116.Google Scholar
  7. Odu, C. T. I., Nwoboshi, L. C. and Esuruoso, O. F.: 1985, Environmental Studies (Soils and Vegetation) of the Nigerian Agip Oil Company Operation Areas, in: Proceedings of an International Seminar on the Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment, NNPC, Lagos, Nigeria, pp. 274–283.Google Scholar
  8. Obute, G. C. and Osuji, L. C.: 2002, ‘Environmental awareness and dividends: A scientific discourse’, African J. Interdiscipl. Stud. 3(1), 90–94.Google Scholar
  9. Okoko, K. A. B. and Ibaba, I. S.: 1999, ‘Oil spillages and community disturbances: The SPDC and the Niger Delta experience’, J. Oil Politics 2, 6–69.Google Scholar
  10. Okonya, E. C., Ajao, E. A., Oyewo, E. O. and Orekoya, T.: 1988, Case Studies of Pollution in the Brackish and Marine Ecosystem in Nigeria, in: Sada, P. O., Odemerho, F. O. (eds.), Environmental Issues and Management in Nigeria, Evans Brothers Nigeria Ltd., Ibadan, pp. 265–269.Google Scholar
  11. Onojake, C. M.: 2004, Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Associated Metals of Ebocha-8 Oil Spill Polluted Site in Niger Delta, Nigeria, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  12. Oremade, T.: 1986, Petroleum Operation in Nigeria, West Africa Book Publishing Company, Lagos, pp. 67–69.Google Scholar
  13. Osibanjo, O. and Jensen, S.: 1980, Ecological and Environmental Perspectises of Pesticide Pollution, in: Proceedings of the First National Conference of Water Pollution and Pesticide Residues in Food, University of Ibadan, pp. 206–207.Google Scholar
  14. Osuji, L. C.: 1998, Some Environmental Effects of Crude Oil Spillage in Two Sites in Rivers State, Nigeria, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  15. Osuji, L. C.: 2001, ‘Total hydrocarbon content of soils, fifteen months after Eneka and Isiokpo oil Spills’, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 5(2), 35–38.Google Scholar
  16. Osuji, L. C.: 2002, ‘Some environmental hazards of oil pollution in Niger Delta, Nigeria’, African J. Interdisc. Stud. 3(1), 11–17.Google Scholar
  17. Osuji, L. C., Adesiyan, S. O. and Obute, G. C.: in press, ‘Post impact assessment of oil pollution in Agbada-West Plain of Niger Delta, Nigeria: Field reconnaissance and total extractable hydrocarbon’, Chem. Biodivers.Google Scholar
  18. Osuji, L. C., Adessiyan, S. O. and Wegwu, M. O.: 2002, ‘Quantal response of Lumbricus terrestis from two oil spillage prone sites to toxicity of Bonny Light crude oil’, Global J. Environ. Sci. 1(1), 59–63.Google Scholar
  19. Smith, I. C., Ferguson, T. L. and Carson, B. L.: 1999, Metals in New and Used Petroleum Products and By-products: Quantities and Consequences, Elsevier, pp. 124–144.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial & Pure ChemistryUniversity of Port HarcourtChoba Port HarcourtNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Crop Protection and Environmental BiologyUniversity of IbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations