Advertisement

Electronic Commerce Research

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 453–477 | Cite as

Study on the influencing factors of unplanned consumption in a large online promotion activity

  • Qiang Yan
  • Lingli Wang
  • Wenjing Chen
  • Junghoo Cho
Article
  • 1k Downloads

Abstract

Large online promotion activities are different from traditional online marketing activities. Issues about consumer behavior in large online promotion activities deserve further discussion. Via consumer surveys before and after the “Double 11” promotion on Taobao.com, we studied the unplanned consumption and its influencing factors (promotion, time pressure, social environment (SE), in-store slack) based on the SOR model and theories of self-regulation. The results show that consumers allocate in-store slack in their shopping budget as a strategy of controlling unplanned consumption. Promotion range, preparation time, SE and in-store slack have effects on unplanned consumption. Actual shopping time and preparation time moderate the relationship between in-store slack and unplanned consumption. Actual shopping time attenuates the relationship between in-store slack and unplanned consumption, while preparation time strengthens the relationship between in-store slack and unplanned consumption. Managerial implications are also discussed based on the research.

Keywords

Unplanned consumption “Double 11” promotion SOR model Self-regulation In-store slack 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research was supported by Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-11-0597) and Beijing Philosophy and Social Science Planning Project (13KDB011).

References

  1. 1.
    Huang, Y. (2011). From the mind to the feet: The influence of shopper activities on unplanned purchases. Advances in Consumer Research, 39, 134–139.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lantz, B., & Hjort, K. (2013). Real e-customer behavioural responses to free delivery and free returns. Electronic Commerce Research, 13(2), 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heilman, C. M., Nakamoto, K., & Rao, A. G. (2002). Pleasant surprises: Consumer response to unexpected instore coupons. Journal of Marketing Research, 39(2), 242–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donovan, R. J., Rossiter, J. R., Marcoolyn, G., & Nesdale, A. (1994). Store atmosphere and purchasing behavior. Journal of Retailing, 70(3), 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Floh, A., & Madlberger, M. (2013). The role of atmospheric cues in online impulse-buying behavior. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(6), 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belk, R. W. (1975). Situational variables and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3), 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park, C. W., & Smith, D. C. (1989). The effects of situational factors on in-store grocery shopping behavior: The role of store environment and time available for shopping. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(4), 422–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kollat, D. T. (1967). Customer impulse purchasing behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 4(1), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rook, D. W., & Fisher, R. J. (1995). Normative influences on impulsive buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vohs, K. D., & Faber, R. J. (2007). Spent resources: self-regulatory resource availability affects impulse buying. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(4), 537–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumeister, R. F., & Heatherton, T. F. (1996). Self-regulation failure: An overview. Psychological Inquiry, 7(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richard, T., & Shefrin, H. M. (1981). An economic theory of self-control. Journal of Political Economy, 89(2), 392–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stilley, K. M., Inman, J. J., & Wakefield, K. L. (2010). Planning to make unplanned purchases? The role of in-store slack in budget deviation. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 264–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoch, S. J., & Loewenstein, G. F. (1991). Time-inconsistent preferences and consumer self-control. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 492–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heath, C., & Soll, J. B. (1996). Mental budgeting and consumer decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 23(1), 40–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeithaml, V. A. (1985). The new demographics and market fragmentation. Journal of Marketing, 49(3), 64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bettman, J. R. (1979). Memory factors in consumer choice: A review. Journal of Marketing, 43(2), 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stern, H. (1962). The significance of impulse buying today. Journal of Marketing, 26(2), 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Inman, J. J., Winer, R. S., & Ferraro, R. (2009). The interplay among category characteristics, customer characteristics, and customer activities on in-store decision making. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Papatla, P., & Liu, F. (2009). Google or BizRate? How search engines and comparison sites affect unplanned choices of online retailers. Journal of Business Research, 62(11), 1039–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kushwaha, T., & Shankar, V. (2013). Are multichannel customers really more valuable? The moderating role of product category characteristics. Journal of Marketing, 77(4), 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bell, D. R., Corsten, D., & Knox, G. (2011). From point of purchase to path to purchase: How preshopping factors drive unplanned buying. Journal of Marketing, 75(1), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hui, S. K., Huang, Y. L., Suher, J., & Inman, J. J. (2013). Deconstructing the “first moment of truth”: Understanding unplanned consideration and purchase conversion using in-store video tracking. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(4), 445–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stilley, K. M., Inman, J. J., & Wakefield, K. L. (2010). Spending on the fly: mental budgets, promotions, and spending behavior. Journal of Marketing, 74(3), 34–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nisco, A. D., & Warnaby, G. (2014). Urban design and tenant variety influences on consumers’ emotions and approach behavior. Journal of Business Research, 67(2), 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hostler, R. E., Yoon, V. Y., Guo, Z. L., Guimaraes, T., & Forgionne, G. (2011). Assessing the impact of recommender agents on on-line consumer unplanned purchase behavior. Information & Management, 48(8), 336–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mukhopadhyay, A., & Johar, G. V. (2007). Tempted or not? The effect of recent purchase history on responses to affective advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(4), 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nordfalt, J. (2009). Unplanned grocery purchases: The influence of the shopping-trip type revisited. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iyer, E. S. (1989). Unplanned purchasing: Knowledge of shopping environment and time pressure. Journal of Retailing, 65(1), 40–57.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Granbois, D. H. (1968). Improving the study of customer in-store behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 32(4), 28–33.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Russell, J. A., & Pratt, G. (1980). A description of the affective quality attributed to environments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Donovan, R. J., & Rossiter, J. R. (1982). Store atmosphere: An environmental psychology approach. Journal of Retailing, 58, 34–57.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gao, L., & Bai, X. (2014). Online consumer behaviour and its relationship to website atmospheric induced flow: Insights into online travel agencies in China. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(4), 653–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ding, C. G., & Lin, C. H. (2012). How does background music tempo work for online shopping? Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 11(3), 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cheng, F. F., Wu, C. S., & Yen, D. C. (2009). The effect of online store atmosphere on consumer’s emotional responses—An experimental study of music and colour. Behaviour & Information Technology, 28(4), 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen, M. Y., & Teng, C. I. (2013). A comprehensive model of the effects of online store image on purchase intention in an e-commerce environment. Electronic Commerce Research, 13(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sniehotta, F. F. (2009). Towards a theory of intentional behaviour change: plans, planning, and self-regulation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(Pt2), 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sitzmann, T., & Ely, K. (2011). A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning in work-related training and educational attainment: What we know and where we need to go. Psychological Bulletin, 137(3), 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (1989). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude–treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 657–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rook, D. W. (1987). The buying impulse. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(2), 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alin, A., Marco, B., & Anja, L. (2014). Price promotion for emotional impact. Journal of Marketing, 78(4), 80–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Luo, X. M. (2005). How does shopping with others influence impulsive purchasing? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 288–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tamara, F. M., Patricia, M. D., & Terry, B. (2004). Shopping with friends and teens’ susceptibility to peer influence. Journal of Retailing, 80(2), 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sang, Y. L. (2015). Interpersonal influence on online game choices. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Suki, N. M. (2013). Consumer shopping behaviour on the Internet: Insights from Malaysia. Electronic Commerce Research, 13(4), 477–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kacen, J. J., Hess, J. D., & Walker, D. (2012). Spontaneous selection: The influence of product and retailing factors on consumer impulse purchases. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(6), 578–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yildirim, Y., & Aydin, O. (2012). Investigation of the effects of discount announcements on consumers’ purchase decisions: a case study in supermarket. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 1235–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chen, I. C., & Hu, S. C. (2012). Gender differences in shoppers’ behavioural reactions to ultra-low price tags at online merchants. Electronic Commerce Research, 12(4), 485–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Puccinelli, N. M., Goodstein, R. C., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: Understanding the buying process. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beatty, S. E., & Smith, S. M. (1987). External search effort: An investigation across several product categories. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(1), 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rieskamp, J., & Hoffrage, U. (2008). Inferences under time pressure: How opportunity costs affect strategy selection. Acta Psychologica, 127(2), 258–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Park, J. E., & Choi, E. J. (2013). Consequences of impulse buying cross-culturally: A qualitative study. International Journal of Software Engineering & Its Applications, 7(1), 147–160.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee, J. A., & Kacen, J. J. (2008). Cultural influences on consumer satisfaction with impulse and planned purchase decisions. Journal of Business Research, 61(3), 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aouinti, N. (2013). Social environment, emotions, and impulse buying: A mediational analysis. Journal of Research in Marketing, 1(2), 55–61.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhang, Z., & Zhuang, G. (2008). A study of consumer impulsive buying based on the view of social influence and Mianzi. Journal of Management Science, 21(6), 66–75.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or fun: Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 644–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nathan, R. J., & Yeow, P. H. P. (2011). Crucial web usability factors of 36 industries for students: A large-scale empirical study. Electronic Commerce Research, 11(2), 151–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lopez-Bonilla, J. M., & Lopez-Bonilla, L. M. (2008). Sensation seeking and e-shoppers. Electronic Commerce Research, 8(3), 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jansen, B. J., Zhang, L., & Mattila, A. S. (2012). User reactions to search engines logos: Investigating brand knowledge of web search engines. Electronic Commerce Research, 12(4), 429–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hui, S. K., Inman, J. J., Huang, Y. L., & Suher, J. (2013). The effect of in-store travel distance on unplanned spending: Applications to mobile promotion strategies. Journal of Marketing, 77(2), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Westland, J. C. (2014). Statistical power and sample size in PLS path analysis. Accessed August 29, 2014, from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2488982.
  63. 63.
    Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and Interpreting interactions. CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiang Yan
    • 1
  • Lingli Wang
    • 2
  • Wenjing Chen
    • 3
  • Junghoo Cho
    • 4
  1. 1.Beijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Economics and ManagementBeijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.University of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations