Journal of Elasticity

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 173–187 | Cite as

A Strain Energy Function for Vulcanized Rubbers

  • M. M. Carroll


A three-parameter strain energy function is developed to model the nonlinearly elastic response of rubber-like materials. The development of the model is phenomenological, based on data from the classic experiments of Treloar, Rivlin and Saunders, and Jones and Treloar on sheets of vulcanized rubber. A simple two-parameter version, similar to the Mooney-Rivlin and Gent-Thomas strain energies, provides an accurate fit with all of the data from Rivlin and Saunders and Jones and Treloar, as well as with Treloar’s data for deformations for which the principal deformation invariant I 1 has values in the range 3≤I 1≤20.


Finite elasticity Strain energy Constitutive equations Rubber Elastomer 

Mathematics Subject Classification

74805 74820 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials ScienceRice UniversityHoustonUSA

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