Misconstrued risks from citrus black spot in colder climates: a response to Er et al. 2013
- 163 Downloads
Species niche models play an important role in pest risk assessments, providing estimates of areas of suitability for establishment, persistence and impact, and sometimes the likely costs of biological invasions (FAO 2006). As has been demonstrated in the case of CBS, important and valuable phytosanitary decisions affecting international trade can hinge on pest risk assessments and their underlying niche models tend to come under close scrutiny. In 2005, Paul et al. published a CLIMEX model of CBS. CBS is present in South Africa, which exports citrus to Europe. Because European authorities are keen to protect European citrus trees from perceived invasion threats from these imported citrus products, the European Food Safety Agency critiqued the CBS model of Paul et al. (2005) (EFSA 2008). In response to EFSA (2008), and to better inform the assessment of the threat posed to European citrus production from CBS associated with imports of South African citrus fruits, Yonow et al. (2013)...
KeywordsStress Index Stress Parameter Climatic Suitability Summer Model Citrus Black Spot
Tania Yonow: Independent contractor. Contracted in 2009 by the Citrus Research Institute in South Africa to produce the CLIMEX analysis presented in Yonow et al. (2013). Currently contracted to HarvestChoice (http://harvestchoice.org/) and InSTePP (http://www.instepp.umn.edu/) at the University of Minnesota to produce a series of CLIMEX analyses on agricultural and livestock pests in Africa. Darren Kriticos: funded by CSIRO to develop improved ecological modelling methods for the study of biosecurity and climate change issues.
- Brunel, S., M. Suffert, F. Petter, and R. H. A. Baker. (2013). Interface between pest risk science and policy: the EPPO perspective. Neobiota.Google Scholar
- EFSA. (2008). Scientific opinion of the panel on plant health on a request from the European Commission on Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. EFSA Journal, 925, 1–108.Google Scholar
- Er, H. L., P. D. Roberts, J. J. Marois, and A. H. C. van Bruggen. (2013). Potential distribution of citrus black spot in the United States based on climatic conditions. European Journal of Plant Pathology.Google Scholar
- FAO. (2006). International standards for phytosanitary measures: 1 to 24.. Rome: Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention.Google Scholar
- Macfadyen, S., & Kriticos, D. J. (2012). Modelling the geographical range of a species with a variable life-history. Public Library of Science One.Google Scholar
- Magarey, R. D., Chanelli, & Holtz, T. (2011). Validation study and risk assessment: Guignardia citricarpa, (citrus black spot). USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST-PERAL/NCSU. http://www.nappfast.org/pest%20reports/guignardia_citricapia.pdf.
- Maywald, G. F., Kriticos, D. J., Sutherst, R. W., & Bottomley, W. (2007). Dymex Model Builder Version 3: User's Guide. Melbourne: Hearne Publishing.Google Scholar
- Pimentel, D., McNair, S., Janecka, J., Wightman, J., Simmonds, C., O'Connell, C., Wong, E., Russel, L., Zern, J., Aquino, T., & Tsomondo, T. (2001). Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 84, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sutherst, R. W., G. F. Maywald, and D. J. Kriticos. (2007). CLIMEX Version 3: User's Guide. Hearne Scientific Software Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
- USDA APHIS PPQ. (2010). Risk assessment of Citrus spp. fruit as a pathway for the introduction of Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, the organism that causes Citrus Black Spot disease. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/downloads/black_spot/cbs-risk-assessment.pdf.
- Venette, R. C., Kriticos, D. J., Magarey, R., Koch, F., Baker, R. H. A., Worner, S., Gómez, N. N., McKenney, D., Dobesberger, E., Yemshanov, D., De Barro, P., Hutchison, W. D., Fowler, G., Kalaris, T., & Pedlar, J. (2010). Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement. Bioscience, 80, 349–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar