European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 138, Issue 1, pp 23–27 | Cite as

Transmission of the Pepino mosaic virus by whitefly

  • P. Noël
  • T. Hance
  • C. Bragard


Two experiments were conducted to investigate the transmission of the Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) from tomato to tomato. In the 1:1 system (in which a single virus-contaminated plant was placed next to a healthy plant in a cage containing 469 whiteflies on average) the virus was transmitted to three out of 10 plants. In the 1:4 system (in which a virus-contaminated plant was surrounded by four healthy plants in a cage with 601 whiteflies on average) the virus was transmitted to five out of 32 plants. In order to investigate the mechanism involved in the transmission, the insect bodies were washed to determine the external presence of viral particles. The results showed that the number of PepMV particles carried on whitefly bodies was low, with an average occurrence of 1.33 on the 55 whiteflies tested after the insects were in contact with infected plants for 5 days. This low occurrence was confirmed by observation under microscope, which showed an absence of PepMV-contaminated tomato sap on the insect bodies, suggesting that PepMV transmission by whiteflies could occur when they feed on the plant.


Pepino mosaic virus Trialeurodes Tomato Transmission Vector 



Pierre Noël is a Fellow of the Fonds de Formation à la Recherche en Industrie et Agriculture (FRIA).


  1. Aguilar, J. M., Hernández-Gallardo, M. D., Cenis, J. L., Lacasa, A., & Aranda, M. A. (2002). Complete sequence of the Pepino mosaic virus RNA genome. Archives of Virology, 147(10), 2009–2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfaro-Fernández, A., Córdoba-sellés, M. D. C., Herrera-Vásquez, J. A., Cebrián, M. D. C., & Jordá, C. (2010). Transmission of Pepino mosaic virus by the Fungal Vector Olpidium virulentus. Journal of Phytopathology, 158, 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bragard, C., Caciagli, P., Lemaire, O., Lopez-Moya, J. J., MacFarlane, S., Peters, D., et al. (2013). Status and prospects of plant virus control through interference with Vector transmission. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 51(9), 1–25.Google Scholar
  4. Fakhro A., Paschek, U., Bargen, S.V., Buttner, C., & Schwarz, D. (2005). Distribution and spread of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in tomatoes cultivated in a re-circulating hydroponic system. Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9–11. Alton UK: British Crop Protection Council, 223–4.Google Scholar
  5. French, C. J., Bouthillier, M., Bernardi, M., Ferguson, G., Sabourin, M., Johnson, R. C., et al. (2001). First report of Pepino mosaic virus in Canada and the United States. Plant Disease, 85, 1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hanssen, I. M., Paeleman, A., Wittemans, L., Goen, K., Lievens, B., & Bragard, C. (2008). Genetic characterization of Pepino mosaic virus isolates from Belgian greenhouse tomatoes reveals genetic recombination. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 121(2), 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hanssen, I. M., Paeleman, A., Vandewoestijne, E., Van Bergen, L., Bragard, C., Lievens, B., Vanachter, A. C. R. C., & Thomma, B. P. H. J. (2009). Pepino mosaic virus isolates and differential symptomatology in tomato. Plant Pathology, 58, 450–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanssen, I. M., Mumford, R., Blystad, D. R., Cortez, I., Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B., Hristova, D., et al. (2010). Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 126, 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harris, K. F., & Bradley, R. H. E. (1972). Aphids can inoculate plants with Tobacco mosaic virus by clawing. Virology, 50, 615–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoggan, I. A. (1931). Further studies on aphid transmission of plant viruses. Phytopathology, 21, 199–212.Google Scholar
  11. Hoggan, I. A. (1934). Transmissibility by aphids of the Tobacco mosaic virus from different hosts. Journal Agricultural Research, 49, 1135–1142.Google Scholar
  12. Jones, D. R. (2003). Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies. European Journal Plant Pathologie, 109, 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones, R. A. C., Koenig, R., & Lesemann, D. E. (1980). Pepino mosaic virus, a new potexvirus from pepino (Solanum muricatum). Annals of Applied Biology, 94, 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Klapwijk, J., & Stijger, C. C. M. M. (2000). Overdracht pepinomozaïekvirus door wittevlieg en Macrolophus. Groente en Fruit/Glasgroenten, 17.Google Scholar
  15. Ling, K.S. & Carpenter, L. (2005) Pepino mosaic virus, an emerging disease in greenhouse tomato production worldwide: is seed responsible? Acta Horticulturae. Leuven Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), 43–50.Google Scholar
  16. Orlob, G. B. (1963). Reappraisal of Transmission of Tobacco mosaic virus by insects. Phytopathology, 53, 822–830.Google Scholar
  17. Pirone, T. P. (1972). Does Tobacco mosaic virus infect plants through wounds produced by aphid stylets? Virology, 49, 801–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roggero, P., Masenga, V., Lenzi, R., Coghe, F., Ena, S., & Winter, S. (2001). First report of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato in Italy. Plant Pathology, 50, 798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Salomone, A., & Roggero, P. (2002). Host range, seed transmission and detection by ELISA and lateral flow of an Italian isolate of Pepino mosaic virus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 84(1), 65–68.Google Scholar
  20. Shipp, J. L., Buitenhuis, R., Stobbs, L., Wang, K., Kim, W. S., & Ferguson, G. (2008). Vectoring of Pepino mosaic virus by bumble-bees in tomato greenhouses. Annals of Applied Biology, 153(2), 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Soler-aleixandre, S., Prohens, J., Díez, M. J., & Nuez, F. (2002). Natural occurrence of Pepino mosaic virus in Lycopersicon species in Central and Southern Peru. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(2), 49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Der Vlugt, R. A. A., Stijger, C. C. M. M., Verhoeven, J. T. J., & Lesemann, D. E. (2000). First report of Pepino mosaic virus on tomato. Plant Disease, 84, 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© KNPV 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Applied Microbiology-PhytopathologyUniversité catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  2. 2.Earth and Life Institute (ELI), BiodiversityUniversité catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations