Characterisation of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from potato in Estonia during 2002–2003
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A collection of 101 isolates of Phytophthora infestans, obtained from seven sampling sites representing central, east and south-east Estonia during 2002 and 2003 were assessed for several phenotypic and genotypic markers. All 101 isolates were assessed for virulence and resistance to metalaxyl. Virulence to each of the 11 classic resistance genes was found among the tested isolates. The mean number of virulences per isolate was 6.3, with a very low frequency of virulence against resistance genes R5 (5%) and R9 (14%). The most common pathotypes were 184.108.40.206.8.10.11 and 220.127.116.11.10.11, representing altogether 12% of the studied strains. In terms of metalaxyl resistance, 30 resistant, 52 intermediate and 19 sensitive isolates were found. A subgroup of 50 isolates was assessed for mating type, allozymes [glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) and peptidase (Pep)], DNA fingerprints with probe RG57 and mtDNA haplotype. Of this subset, 30 were A1 and 20 were A2. Collections from three of the seven fields contained both mating types. Allozyme analysis did not reveal any polymorphism. However, 19 diverse RG57 fingerprints were detected, and two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, Ia and IIa, were detected. By combining the mating type, mtDNA haplotype and RG57 fingerprint data, 26 multilocus genotypes were identified, of which 18 were detected only once. Genotypic diversity measured by the normalised Shannon diversity index was high (0.76). The large number of multilocus genotypes and the presence of both mating types in some fields indicate that sexual reproduction may take place in Estonian populations of P. infestans.
KeywordsDiversity Mating type Metalaxyl resistance mtDNA RG57 fingerprinting Virulence phenotype
The study was supported by Estonian Foundation Grant no. 4734, 6098 and 7391. Renate Lebecka (Plant Breeding and Acclimatisation Institute, Mlochow, Poland) is highly acknowledged for providing differential genotypes. Triinu Remmel (Tartu University) is acknowledged for statistical analyses.
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