Efficacy and dose–response relationship in biocontrol of Fusarium disease in maize by Streptomyces spp.
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Two isolates of Streptomyces spp. DAUFPE 11470 and DAUFPE 14632 were evaluated to determine the antagonist–pathogen inoculum concentration relationship under greenhouse conditions. Pathogen and antagonist concentration, significantly (P < 0.05) affected development of Fusarium disease in maize with a significant interaction between pathogen and antagonist concentration. Dose–response relationship also differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the two isolates, but both isolates demonstrated effective control of Fusarium disease, regardless of pathogen concentration. The isolate DAUFPE 11470 provided the most effective control. The lowest value for disease incidence occurred at low pathogen (103 chlamydospore g−1 soil) and high antagonist concentration (106 cfu ml−1) for both isolates. The disease incidence for control plants ranged from 19% to 76%. However, in relation to control the lowest disease reduction occurred at low pathogen (103 chlamydospore g−1 soil) and high antagonist concentrations (106 cfu ml−1). These reductions were 10.6% and 13% for DAUFPE 14632 and DAUFPE 11470, respectively. The highest disease reductions, in relation to control plants, occurred at high pathogen (106 chlamydospore g−1 soil) and antagonist (106 cfu ml−1) concentrations for both isolates. These values were 55% and 62.2% for DAUFPE 14632 and DAUFPE 11470, respectively. The chlamydospore germination of Fusarium moniliforme was affected by glucose addition, antagonist isolates and type of inoculum. The lowest chlamydospore germination was observed with bacterial suspensions of the isolates, for all glucose additions. The results suggested that both Streptomyces spp. isolates were effective at different doses as biocontrol agents against F. moniliforme. Also, there was evidence for at least two mechanisms of biocontrol and that apparently, both isolates showed the same mechanisms of biocontrol action related to production of bioactive compounds and competition for carbon. Further studies will be developed to improve the level and effectiveness of control by these isolates.
KeywordsBiocontrol Fusarium moniliforme Maize Seedborne diseases Streptomyces
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