Virulence and diversity of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei in East China
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Four hundred and sixty-one isolates of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were obtained from eight populations occurring on cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) at four geographically distant locations in China during 2003 and 2004. Their virulence frequency was determined on 30 differential lines. No isolate was virulent on differential lines possessing the resistance genes Mla1, Mla3, Mla6, Mla7, Mla9, Mla12, Mla13, Mlat, Mlg, Mla10, Mla22, Mla23, Mlp1, Ml(N81) and Mlmw. Virulences to the first nine resistance genes are prevalent in Europe and constitute the main part of genetic distance between Chinese and European populations. Conversely, no isolate was avirulent on the differential lines possessing the genes Mla8 and Ml(Ch). The frequencies of isolates overcoming the genes Mla2, Mla11, Mlk1 and Mlk2 were .4–9.3%, and frequencies of isolates overcoming the genes Mlh, MlLa, Ml(Bw), Mlra, Ml(Ru2), mlw, MlGa, MlWo and Mlnn ranged from 18.2% to 98.7%. Based on reactions of differential lines possessing the genes Mlk1, Mlh, MlLa, Ml(Bw), Mlra and Ml(Ru2), pathotypes were identified and diversity parameters calculated. Eleven of 22 detected pathotypes were found in both years and comprised 94.6% of isolates. Generally, the populations from different locations in 1 year were more closely related than populations collected from the same locations in different years. Complete effectiveness of the resistance genes, for which no corresponding virulences were found, will allow Chinese breeders to access many modern European barley cultivars that are fully resistant to powdery mildew in China, including those possessing the non-host resistance gene mlo.
KeywordsBarley Erysiphegraminis f.sp. hordei Hordeumvulgare Pathogen population Powdery mildew
This study was conducted with grants no. ME706 and 1P05OC045 (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic). The authors thank Professor Qiuquan Shen for cooperation in preparing the first mentioned project, Professor Jianming Yang for managing the collection of isolates, Mr. Tsu for his technical assistance and Professor Evsey Kosman (Institute for Cereal Crops Improvement, The George S. Wise Faculty for Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel) for kindly calculating population parameters and critical reading of the manuscript. The first author also thanks the Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences Hangzhou for providing suitable conditions for both his stays.
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