European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 115, Issue 2, pp 263–267 | Cite as

Control of Leveillula taurica in Tomato by Acremonium alternatum is by Induction of Resistance, not Hyperparasitism

  • A.-M. Kasselaki
  • M. W. Shaw
  • N. E. Malathrakis
  • J. Haralambous
Short communication


Spores of the hyperparasite Acremonium alternatum reduced powdery mildew infection by Leveillula taurica on greenhouse tomato. The effect was slightly increased when spores were applied killed, and therefore not due to direct parasitism. The effect was systemic, protecting untreated leaves above the treated ones. Spores killed by heat had more effect than when killed by UV, so the effect was presumably due to induction of host resistance by substances released when cells were heat killed. The size of the effect depended upon leaf age and level of infection. Effects on primary infection and expansion of successful infections appear to be under independent control.

Key words

biocontrol hyperparasite induced resistance powdery mildew tomato systemic 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank the School of Agriculture in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI), Crete, Greece for facilities for the experiments.


  1. Belanger RR, Labbe C (2002) Control of powdery mildews without chemicals: Prophylactic and biological alternatives for horticultural crops. In: Belanger RR, Bushnell WR, Dik AJ, Carver TLW, (eds) The Powdery Mildews. A Comprehensive Treatise. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, 256–257Google Scholar
  2. Cerkauskas RF, Leopold L, Ferguson G (2000) Control of powdery mildew in greenhouse cucumbers, peppers, and tomatoes (Abstract)Phytopathology 90: S12Google Scholar
  3. Diop-Bruckler M, Molot PM, (1987) Intérêt de quelques hyperparasites dans la lutte contre Leveillula taurica et Sphaerotheca fuligineaEPPO Bulletin 17: 593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Guzman-Plazola RA (1997) Development of a spray forecast model for tomato powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) (Lev.) Arn. PhD Thesis, University of California, Davis, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  5. Heil M, (2001) The ecological concept of costs of induced systemic resistance (ISR)European Journal of Plant Pathology 107:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kiss L, (2003) A review of fungal antagonists of powdery mildews and their potential as biocontrol agentsPest Management Science 59: 475–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Malathrakis NE, (1985) The fungus Acremonium alternatum Linc:Fr., a hyperparasite of the cucubits powdery mildew pathogen Sphaerotheca fuligineaZeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 92:509–515Google Scholar
  8. Mead R, Curnow RN, Hasted AM, (2003) Statistical Methods in Agriculture and Experimental Biology. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Ozeretskovskaya (1995) Induced resistance. In: Hammerschmidt R, Kuc J (eds) Induced Resistance to Disease in Plants (pp. 31–62). Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  10. Palti J, (1988) The Leveillula mildewsBotanical Review 54:423–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Reuveni M, Reuveni R, (2000) Prior inoculation with non-pathogenic fungi induces systemic resistance to powdery mildew on cucumber plantsEuropean Journal of Plant Pathology 106:633–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A.-M. Kasselaki
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. W. Shaw
    • 2
  • N. E. Malathrakis
    • 1
  • J. Haralambous
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biological Control of Plant Diseases, TEI-CreteSTEGHeraklioGreece
  2. 2.School of Plant SciencesThe University of ReadingReadingUK
  3. 3.Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchAnavissosGreece

Personalised recommendations