Table 1 Characteristics of the UK Biobank study population: participants who were, alive, dead from COVID-19 or dead from another cause than COVID-19 as of 21 September, 2020 in the full UK Biobank sample

From: COVID-19 mortality in the UK Biobank cohort: revisiting and evaluating risk factors

  Alive (N = 470,465) COVID-19 deaths (N = 459) Non-COVID-19 deaths (N = 2626)
N Mean (SD)/Proportion N Mean (SD)/Proportion N Mean (SD)/Proportion
Demographics
Age (years) 470,465 67.86 (8.09) 459 74.50 (5.96) 2626 73.82 (6.26)
Sex
Women 260,378 55.34% 168 36.60% 1158 44.10%
Men 210,087 44.66% 291 63.40% 1468 55.90%
Ethnicity
White 442,001 94.46% 415 91.41% 2529 96.75%
Black 7734 1.65% 23 5.07% 27 1.03%
Other 18,175 3.88% 16 3.52% 58 2.22%
Social
Education
High 153,845 33.35% 87 19.91% 634 24.67%
Intermediate 231,765 50.24% 188 43.02% 1162 45.21%
Low 75,665 16.40% 162 37.07% 774 30.12%
Type of accommodation
House 420,969 90.26% 369 82.92% 2246 86.89%
Flat 45,426 9.74% 76 17.08% 339 13.11%
Own or rent accommodation
Own outright 239,996 52.24% 258 58.64% 1655 65.21%
Own with a mortgage 176,654 38.45% 91 20.68% 503 19.82%
Rent 42,734 9.30% 91 20.68% 380 14.97%
Number in household 466,469 2.46 (1.32) 443 2.06 (1.03) 2589 2.06 (1.16)
Average household income (GBP)
Less than 18,000 86,640 21.69% 171 46.85% 839 39.33%
18,000 to 30,999 100,837 25.24% 93 25.48% 633 29.68%
31,000 to 51,999 106,021 26.54% 62 16.99% 378 17.72%
Greater than 52,000 106,008 26.53% 39 10.68% 283 13.27%
Occupation
Unemployed 64,136 13.79% 78 17.18% 423 16.25%
Employed (Healthcare worker) 27,925 6.00% 20 4.41% 84 3.23%
Employed (Other) 236,502 50.85% 102 22.47% 697 26.78%
Retired 136,489 29.35% 254 55.95% 1399 53.75%
Health risk factors
Smoking status
Never 261,361 55.87% 171 37.75% 1111 42.68%
Former 159,706 34.14% 211 46.58% 1052 40.41%
Current 46,745 9.99% 71 15.67% 440 16.90%
Alcohol drinker status
Never 20,762 4.43% 35 7.69% 168 6.42%
Former 15,938 3.40% 34 7.47% 138 5.28%
Current 432,254 92.17% 386 84.84% 2309 88.30%
Body Mass Index (kg/m)2
 < 25 156,241 33.40% 88 19.69% 724 27.88%
[25,30[ 199,134 42.57% 186 41.61% 1058 40.74%
[30,40[ 103,803 22.19% 149 33.33% 734 28.26%
 >  = 40 8,656 1.85% 24 5.37% 81 3.12%
Biological
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 439,979 5.71 (1.13) 421 5.45 (1.26) 2446 5.48 (1.24)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 402,733 1.45 (0.38) 392 1.34 (0.37) 2237 1.39 (0.40)
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 439,634 1.74 (1.02) 421 1.92 (1.08) 2445 1.84 (1.01)
Vitamin D (nmol/L) 420,153 48.78 (21.07) 398 46.03 (21.44) 2343 47.51 (21.91)
Cystatin C (mg/L) 439,942 0.90 (0.16) 421 1.01 (0.22) 2442 1.01 (0.27)
Medical
Cancer
No 399,570 84.93% 351 76.47% 1806 68.77%
Yes 70,895 15.07% 108 23.53% 820 31.23%
Cardiovascular
No 381,505 81.09% 243 52.94% 1499 57.08%
Yes 88,960 18.91% 216 47.06% 1127 42.92%
Hypertension
No 320,865 68.20% 176 38.34% 1223 46.57%
Yes 149,600 31.80% 283 61.66% 1403 53.43%
Diabetes
No 437,687 93.03% 345 75.16% 2156 82.10%
Yes 32,778 6.97% 114 24.84% 470 17.90%
Respiratory
No 374,220 79.54% 309 67.32% 1762 67.10%
Yes 96,245 20.46% 150 32.68% 864 32.90%
Autoimmune
No 407,506 86.62% 357 77.78% 2092 79.66%
Yes 62,959 13.38% 102 22.22% 534 20.34%
ACE inhibitors
No 427,168 90.80% 353 76.91% 2115 80.54%
Yes 43,297 9.20% 106 23.09% 511 19.46%
Angiotensin II receptor blocker
No 453,016 96.29% 420 91.50% 2407 91.66%
Yes 17,449 3.71% 39 8.50% 219 8.34%
Oral steroid
No 466,236 99.10% 442 96.30% 2571 97.91%
Yes 4229 0.90% 17 3.70% 55 2.09%
Statin
No 398,609 84.73% 302 65.80% 1818 69.23%
Yes 71,856 15.27% 157 34.20% 808 30.77%
Environmental
NOX (ug/m3) 463,650 44.03 (15.50) 446 46.65 (15.38) 2590 45.10 (15.28)
PM10 (ug/m3) 432,557 16.23 (1.90) 403 16.50 (1.77) 2341 16.30 (1.87)
PM2.5 (absorbance/m) 432,557 1.19 (0.27) 403 1.22 (0.26) 2341 1.18 (0.26)
PM2.5 (ug/m3) 432,557 9.99 (1.06) 403 10.21 (1.02) 2341 10.06 (1.06)