European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 159–163 | Cite as

The prevalence of multiple non-communicable diseases among middle-aged and elderly people: the Shanghai Changfeng Study

  • Huandong Lin
  • Qian Li
  • Yu Hu
  • Chouwen Zhu
  • Hui Ma
  • Jian Gao
  • Jiong Wu
  • Hong Shen
  • Wenhai Jiang
  • Naiqing Zhao
  • Yiqing Yin
  • Baishen Pan
  • Johannes Jeekel
  • Albert Hofman
  • Xin Gao



We set out to study the prevalence and combination of multiple non-communicable diseases among middle-aged and elderly people in the Shanghai Changfeng community, China.


A cross-sectional survey through questionnaire, physical, and laboratory examinations, color ultrasound and DXA was performed on a typical sample of 6038 residents (ages greater than 45-years-old) from the Shanghai Changfeng community between June 2009 and December 2012.


The prevalence of chronic diseases (rating from high to low) was as follows: hypertension (55.3%), dyslipidemia (33.5%), diabetes (21.9%), obesity (12.4%), and osteoporosis (9.3%). There were sex-specific and age-specific differences in these diseases. Just less than half (40.5%) the study population suffered from two or more chronic diseases. Hypertension patients were more likely to suffer from obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, but not osteoporosis. The most common combination of multiple diseases was hypertension with dyslipidemia (9.95%) or diabetes (6.61%).


In the Chinese middle-aged and elderly population, the most common multiple non-communicable diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity should be controlled to prevent cardiovascular disease.


Prevalence Chronic diseases Community-based cohort study middle-aged and elderly population 



Non-communicable diseases


Waist circumference


Hip circumference


Body mass index


Waist to hip ratio


Blood pressure


Fasting blood glucose


Total cholesterol




High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol


Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol


2-hour blood glucose


Oral glucose tolerance test


National Glycated Haemoglobin Standardization Program


Bone mineral density




Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry


Systolic blood pressure


Diastolic blood pressure


Cardiovascular disease



This work was sponsored by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB524906 to X. Gao), the Shanghai Municipal Health Project Grant (Grant No. 2013ZYJB0802 to X. Gao), the Shanghai Health and Family Planning Commission Foundation (Grant Nos. 12GWZX0103 and 2013SY005 to X. Gao), and the Shanghai Hospital Development Center Foundation (SHDC12012201 to X. Gao).

Authors’ contribution

Study conception and design: XG, AH and JJ. Site inspection and data collection: HL, QL, YH, CZ and HM. Sample examination: JW and BP. Data management: HL, JG, HS, WJ and YY. Data analysis: HL, JG, NZ and XG. Manuscript preparation: HL and QL. Manuscript revision: XG and AH.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have declared that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huandong Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qian Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yu Hu
    • 3
  • Chouwen Zhu
    • 4
  • Hui Ma
    • 3
  • Jian Gao
    • 5
  • Jiong Wu
    • 6
  • Hong Shen
    • 7
  • Wenhai Jiang
    • 7
  • Naiqing Zhao
    • 8
  • Yiqing Yin
    • 7
  • Baishen Pan
    • 6
  • Johannes Jeekel
    • 9
  • Albert Hofman
    • 10
  • Xin Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Fudan Institute for Metabolic DiseasesShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Geriatrics, Clinical Epidemiology Center, Shanghai Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Department of Foreign AffairsFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Nutrition, Shanghai Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  6. 6.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  7. 7.Network Information Center, Shanghai Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  8. 8.Department of Biostatistics, School of Public HealthFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  9. 9.Department of NeuroscienceErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Department of EpidemiologyErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands

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