The synergistic effect of exposure to alcohol, tobacco smoke and other risk factors for age-related macular degeneration
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual loss among people aged 50 years and older in the developed world . Cigarette smoking, hypertension, inflammation and alcohol consumption, have been shown to be associated with AMD in some, but not all studies [2, 3, 4]. In our study we have evaluated the synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco smoking with other risk factors in the risk of developing AMD.
The investigation adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee. We recruited patients, providing written informed consent, with AMD (the phenotype was early AMD, both the drusen and the pigmentary changes) during the period between August and November 2011 from the Center Maculopathy of the Department Sense Organs Sapienza University of Rome, Teaching Hospital Umberto I.
The controls, matched to cases by age and sex, consist of two distinct groups:
a) patients with eye diseases (unrelated with AMD);
KeywordsAlcohol Intake Synergistic Interaction Late Stage Disease Severe Visual Loss Synergism Index
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