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European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 445–446 | Cite as

The synergistic effect of exposure to alcohol, tobacco smoke and other risk factors for age-related macular degeneration

  • Giuseppe La Torre
  • Elena Pacella
  • Rosella Saulle
  • Guglielmo Giraldi
  • Fernanda Pacella
  • Tommaso Lenzi
  • Olga Mastrangelo
  • Federica Mirra
  • Gianluca Aloe
  • Paolo Turchetti
  • Chiara Brillante
  • Giulio De Paolis
  • Antonio Boccia
  • Rosalia Giustolisi
Letter to the Editor

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual loss among people aged 50 years and older in the developed world [1]. Cigarette smoking, hypertension, inflammation and alcohol consumption, have been shown to be associated with AMD in some, but not all studies [2, 3, 4]. In our study we have evaluated the synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco smoking with other risk factors in the risk of developing AMD.

The investigation adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee. We recruited patients, providing written informed consent, with AMD (the phenotype was early AMD, both the drusen and the pigmentary changes) during the period between August and November 2011 from the Center Maculopathy of the Department Sense Organs Sapienza University of Rome, Teaching Hospital Umberto I.

The controls, matched to cases by age and sex, consist of two distinct groups:

a) patients with eye diseases (unrelated with AMD);

b) individuals...

Keywords

Alcohol Intake Synergistic Interaction Late Stage Disease Severe Visual Loss Synergism Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe La Torre
    • 1
  • Elena Pacella
    • 1
  • Rosella Saulle
    • 1
  • Guglielmo Giraldi
    • 1
  • Fernanda Pacella
    • 1
  • Tommaso Lenzi
    • 1
  • Olga Mastrangelo
    • 1
  • Federica Mirra
    • 1
  • Gianluca Aloe
    • 1
  • Paolo Turchetti
    • 1
  • Chiara Brillante
    • 1
  • Giulio De Paolis
    • 1
  • Antonio Boccia
    • 1
  • Rosalia Giustolisi
    • 1
  1. 1.Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

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