Incident solar radiation and coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe
- 144 Downloads
The reported low mortality rate from coronary heart disease in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, and France, to a lesser extent, has been attributed in numerous nutritional studies to the consumption of a Mediterranean-type diet. There are still many unresolved issues about the direct causal effect of the Mediterranean dietary regime on low incidence of coronary heart disease. An analysis of coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe from a latitudinal gradient perspective has shown to have a close correlation to incident solar radiation. It is surmised that the resulting increased in situ biosynthesis of Vitamin D3 could be the critical missing confounder in the analysis of the beneficial health outcome of the Mediterranean diet.
KeywordsCoronary heart disease Incident solar radiation Mortality rate Europe
- 5.World Health Organization—WHO. European health for all statistical database—2002. Geneva: WHO; 2005. http://www.euro.who.int/hfadb.
- 6.Hay DR. Cardiovascular disease in New Zealand, 2001: a summary of recent statistical information. Technical Report No. 78. The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. January, 2002.Google Scholar
- 11.National Aeronautics and Space Administration—NASA. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy 2007; Release 5.1. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/.
- 13.British Heart Foundation. Age-standardized death rates from CHD by country, men aged 35–74, 1968–2001, Europe. Statistical Website 2007; http://www.heartstats.org/datapage.asp?id=757.
- 14.Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nut. 2004;80(suppl):1678S–88S.Google Scholar
- 17.Cantorna, MT, Zhu Y, Froicu M, Wittke A. Vitamin D status, 1–25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and the immune system. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80(6 Suppl): 1717S–20S.Google Scholar
- 21.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/FAO—World Health Organization/WHO. Human vitamin and mineral requirements, Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. Thailand: Bangkok; 2001. p. 109–20.Google Scholar
- 22.Kafatos AG. EURODIET—Nutrition and diet for healthy lifestyles in Europe. Health and Consumer Protection Directorate, European Commission, 2001. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/nutrition/documents/ev_20030630_co03_en.pdf.
- 25.Dyerberg J. Coronary heart disease in Greenland Inuit: a paradox. Implications for western diet patterns. Arc Med Res. 1989;48:47–54.Google Scholar
- 28.Kimlin MG, Olds WJ, Moore MR. Location and Vitamin D synthesis: is the hypothesis validated by geophysical data? J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol. Dec 1, 2006; Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar