Differences between women and men in serial HIV prevalence and incidence trends
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To measure trends in HIV incidence and serial prevalence by sex in a intravenous drug users (IDUs) and heterosexuals (HT) cohort recruited in a counselling centre in Valencia (1988–2005). Serial prevalence and incidence rates were calculated and modelled by logistic and Poisson regression respectively. 5948 IDUs and 13343 HT were recruited. Prevalence was higher among female IDUs (46% vs. 41%), and female HT (4.1% vs. 2%). For IDUs, an interaction (P = 0.005) between sex and calendar was detected. Age-adjusted prevalence showed faster yearly decline in men (OR = 0.87 95%CI: 0.85–0.88) than in women (OR = 0.91 95%CI: 0.88–0.93). Incidence was higher in female IDUs (9.79% p-y) than in men, (5.38% p-y) with an annual decrease for both of 11%. HIV incidence was higher in female HT (0.62% p-y) compared to men 0.23% p-y with a 21% yearly decline. Gender differences in HIV prevalence and incidence trends have been detected. Women showed an increased vulnerability to infection in a country whose HIV epidemic has been largely driven by IDUs.
KeywordsHIV testing HIV incidence and prevalence Trends Gender
Centre for AIDS Information and Prevention
Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C virus
Intravenous drug users
Sponsorship: This work was financed through grants from Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria (FIS) (02/0639) and Becas de la Consellería de Sanitat de la Generalitat Valenciana B12/03 y B15/04.
Authorship: I. Hurtado, designed the study, I Hurtado and S Pérez-Hoyos carried out the statistical analysis. I. Alastrue, C. Santos and T. Tasa were responsible for the recruitment and data collection. S. Pérez-Hoyos set up the original study and collaborated in its design. I. Hurtado, S. Pérez-Hoyos and J. Del Amo wrote and interpreted the results. All the authors revised the different versions of the manuscript.
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