European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 777–781 | Cite as

Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of hypospadias – a population-based case-control study

  • Pia Wogelius
  • Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó
  • Lars Pedersen
  • Mette Nørgaard
  • Andrew E. Czeizel
  • Henrik Toft Sørensen
Risk factors


The aim of this population-based case-control study was to examine the risk of isolated hypospadias in boys born to mothers who have used oral contraceptives in early pregnancy. The study was based on data from the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities from 1980 to 1996, and included 3,038 boys with hypospadias (cases), 24,799 boys without congenital abnormalities (CA-free controls), and 11,881 boys with abnormalities other than hypospadias. We used unconditional logistic regression to adjust for birth order, maternal age, maternal employment status, maternal diabetes, and pre-eclampsia. When comparing cases with CA-free controls the OR for maternal use of OC was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.67–2.17). When comparing cases with boys with other abnormalities, the OR for maternal use of OC was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.46–1.50). Our data showed that self-reported maternal use of oral contraceptives during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in the offspring.


Case-control Congenital abnormalities Drug safety Epidemiology Pregnancy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pia Wogelius
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó
    • 3
  • Lars Pedersen
    • 1
  • Mette Nørgaard
    • 1
  • Andrew E. Czeizel
    • 4
  • Henrik Toft Sørensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical EpidemiologyAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Community Oral Health and Pediatric DentistrySchool of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Human Genetics and TeratologyNational Center for Healthcare Audit and ImprovementBudapestHungary
  4. 4.Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary DiseasesBudapestHungary

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