The correlation of altitude with gingival status among adolescents in western China: a cross-sectional study

Abstract

Periodontal disease is common in Chinese adolescents. There is little information about the effect of different altitudes on gingival health. This study aimed to investigate the gingival status at different altitudes and to identify relative factors that affect adolescents' gingival status. A total of 1033 adolescents aged 12–14 years were included in this cross-sectional study in Ganzi (plateau, 1400 m, 2560 m, 3300 m) and Suining (plain, 300 m). Gingival status was assessed by the presence of gingival bleeding on probing (BOP) and dental calculus (DC). Demographic variables, socioeconomic status, dairy habits and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were obtained via questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential relative factors. A total of 64.09% and 77.15% of adolescents had BOP and DC, respectively. The prevalence rates of BOP and DC were higher in the plateau than the plain (P < 0.05). After adjusting for all other factors and interaction terms, residence altitudes of 2560 m [300 m as reference: P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 4.072] and 3300 m (300 m as reference: P = 0.002, OR = 4.053) were significant relative factors of BOP, and an altitude of 2560 m (300 m as reference: P = 0.001, OR = 3.866, 1400 m as reference: P = 0.001, OR = 3.944) was an important relative factor of DC. Gingival bleeding and calculus deposits were common at different altitudes. High altitude was a significant relative factor of gingival bleeding and calculus deposits.

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Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

This survey was funded by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (81970948), a follow-up investigation of the 4th National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey and Key Research and Development Program of China of Sichuan Province (20ZDYF3012). We appreciate Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture People’s Hospital for their support and thank the technical assistance provided by the Sichuan Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, survey team from the West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, P. R. China.

Funding

This survey was funded by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (81970948), The follow up investigation of the 4th National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey and Key Research and Development Program of China of Sichuan Province (20ZDYF3012).

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ZW, RZ, LC, and HC performed data collection. ZW, RC, and RC performed data analysis. ZW performed results interpretation and drafted the manuscript. HC, RC, and TH undertook critical revision of the manuscript. All authors reviewed/edited the manuscript and approved the final version.

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Correspondence to Hong Chen or Ran Cheng.

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This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by Stomatological Ethics Committee of the Chinese Stomatological Association (Approval No. 2014-003) and Research Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of stomatology, Sichuan University (WCHSIRB-OT2016-077).

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Wu, Z., Zhang, R., Cheng, L. et al. The correlation of altitude with gingival status among adolescents in western China: a cross-sectional study. Environ Geochem Health (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00812-6

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Keywords

  • Gingival bleeding
  • Calculus deposit
  • Altitude
  • Adolescent
  • Cross-sectional study