In order to understand the processes of stone formation, compositional, spectroscopic, mineralogical and crystallographic characteristics of human urinary stones collected from patients in Sri Lanka were investigated in detail. The data showed that the majority of urinary calculi were calcium oxalate, either whewellite or weddellite. Other solid phases of stones were composed of struvite, uricite and hydroxylapatite. However, mixed compositions were common except for whewellite stones which occur frequently in pure form. Scanning electron microscope observations and associated energy-dispersive X-ray analyses revealed that whewellite or weddellite was well crystalized compared to other stones types, while phosphate stones were mostly cryptocrystalline. The average δ13C and δ18O of stones were − 32.2‰ (− 37.3 to − 17.4‰) and − 24.2‰ (− 26.7‰ to − 8.9‰), respectively. The δ13C values were highly depleted compared to North American and European urinary stones. This may be due to food habits of Asians who consume rice as the staple food.
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Dr. Stefan Krumm of GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, is acknowledged for his help in XRD analysis. The study was performed with the approval of ethics committee at the Colombo South General Hospital, in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. This research study was funded by a research grant from the University of Peradeniya (RG/AF 2013/71/S) offered to RC and AS.
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Chandrajith, R., Weerasingha, A., Premaratne, K.M. et al. Mineralogical, compositional and isotope characterization of human kidney stones (urolithiasis) in a Sri Lankan population. Environ Geochem Health 41, 1881–1894 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0237-2
- Urinary stones
- Calcium oxalate monohydrate
- Carbon isotopes
- Trace elements