Chinese population exposure to triclosan and triclocarban as measured via human urine and nails
- 405 Downloads
Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) exposures are highly concerned due to their suspected endocrine-disrupting effects. The present study investigated TCS and TCC exposure levels in the general Chinese population by biomonitoring human urine and nail samples. TCS (69–80 %) and TCC (99–100 %) were frequently detected, which demonstrates that the general Chinese population has extensive exposure to these chemicals. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were 0.40 μg/g creatinine (creat), 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.56, for TCS and 0.40 μg/g creat, 95 % CI 0.29–0.56, for TCC. On the other hand, the GM levels of TCS and TCC were 13.57 (5.67 μg/kg) and 84.66 μg/kg (41.50 μg/kg) in fingernail (toenail) samples, respectively, indicating that the levels in fingernails were approximately twice as high as those in toenails. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the urine and fingernail (toenail) samples were 0.715 (0.614) for TCS and 0.829 (0.812) for TCC. These data suggest that nail samples can be applied to the biomonitoring for TCS and TCC in the general population. We observed that the levels of both chemicals were higher in females than in males for urine and fingernail samples, but no significant differences were found between different genders for either compound in toenails. Nineteen- to 29-year-olds had the highest TCS levels in their nail samples, whereas TCC levels did not differ with regard to age. Region of residence significantly influenced TCS and TCC concentrations in the three biological matrices measured.
KeywordsTriclosan Triclocarban Urine Nail Biomonitoring Exposure
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21177014).
- Birch, C. G., Hiles, R. A., Eichhold, T. H., Jeffcoat, A. R., Handy, R. W., Hill, J. M., et al. (1978). Biotransformation products of 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide in rat, monkey, and man. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 6, 169–176.Google Scholar
- Hiles, R. A., & Birch, C. G. (1978). The absorption, excretion, and biotransformation of 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide in humans. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 6(2), 177–183.Google Scholar
- Li, X., Ying, G. G., Zhao, J. L., Chen, Z. F., Lai, H. J., & Su, H. C. (2013). 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol-A and triclosan levels in human urine of children and students in China, and the effects of drinking these bottled materials on the levels. Environment International, 52, 81–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teitelbaum, S. L., Britton, J. A., Calafat, A. M., Ye, X., Silva, M. J., Reidy, J. A., et al. (2008). Temporal variability in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, phytoestrogens and phenols among minority children in the United States. Environmental Research, 106(2), 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency (2009) Initial risk-based prioritization of high production volume (HPV) chemicals. Triclocarban (CASRN 101-20-2). http://www.epa.gov/hpvis/rbp/101-20-2_Triclocarban_Web_April%202009.pdf.
- Wu, J. L., Leung, K. F., Tong, S. F., & Lam, C. W. (2012). Organochlorine isotopic pattern-enhanced detection and quantification of triclosan and its metabolites in human serum by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Rapid Communication in Mass Spectrometry, 26(2), 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar