Long-term assessment of the environmental fate of heavy metals in agricultural soil after cessation of organic waste treatments
- 462 Downloads
The current study examined the anthropogenic accumulation and natural decrease in metal concentrations in agricultural soils following organic waste application. Three common organic wastes, including municipal sewage sludge, alcohol fermentation processing sludge, and pig manure compost (PMC), were applied annually to an agricultural soil under field conditions over 7 years (1994–2000) at a rate of 12.5, 25, and 50 ton ha−1 year−1 and the soil accumulation of three metals of concern (Cu, Pb, and Zn) was monitored. Subsequently, organic waste amendments ceased and the experimental plots were managed using conventional fertilization for another 10 years (2001–2010) and the natural decrease in metal concentrations monitored. Although Cu and Zn concentrations in all experimental plots did not exceed the relevant guideline values (150 mg kg−1 for Cu and 300 mg kg−1 for Zn), significant increases in metal concentrations were observed from cumulative application of organic wastes over 7 years. For instance, PMC treatment resulted in an increase in Cu and Zn from 9.8 and 72 mg kg−1 to 108.2 and 214.3 mg kg−1, respectively. In addition, the natural decrease in Cu and Zn was not significant as soils amended with PMC showed only a 16 and 19 % decline in Cu and Zn concentrations, respectively, even 10 years after amendment ceased. This research suggested that more attention must be paid during production of organic waste-based amendments and at the application stage.
KeywordsAmendment Compost Contamination Municipal solid waste
This study was carried out with the support of “Research Program for Agricultural Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ009408)”, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea. Also, this study was supported by the fund (NRF-2012R1A1A1041055) from the National Research Foundation of Korea.
- Ahmad, M., Moon, D. H., Lim, K. J., Shope, C. L., Lee, S. S., Usman, A. R. A., et al. (2012). An assessment of the utilization of waste resources for the immobilization of Pb and Cu in the soil from a Korean military shooting range. Environmental Earth Sciences, 67(4), 1023–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baveye, P., McBride, M. B., Bouldin, D., Hinesly, T. D., Dahdoh, M. S. A., & Abdel-sabour, M. F. (1999). Mass balance and distribution of sludge-borne trace elements in a silt loam soil following long-term applications of sewage sludge. Science of the Total Environment, 227(1), 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bremner, J. M. (1996). Nirogen-Total. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis: Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA Book series 5 (pp. 1085–1121). SSSA and ASA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
- Chaney, R. L. (1994). Trace metal movement in soil: Plant systems and bioavailability of biosolids. In C. E. Clapp & W. E. Larson (Eds.), Sewage sludge land utilization and the environment (pp. 27–31). Madison, WI: Soil Sci Soc Amer Publ.Google Scholar
- Evanylo, G., Sherony, C., Spargo, J., Starner, D., Brosius, M., & Haering, K. (2008). Soil and water environmental effects of fertilizer-, manure-, and compost-based fertility practices in an organic vegetable cropping system. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 127(1–2), 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lim, J. E., Ahmad, M., Lee, S. S., Shope, C. L., Hashimoto, Y., Kim, K.-R., Usman, A. R. A., Yang, J. E., & Ok, Y. S. (2013) Effects of lime-based waste materials on immobilization and phytoavailability of cadmium and lead in contaminated soil. CLEAN: Soil, Air, Water, doi: 10.1002/clen.201200169.
- MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries). (2012). Fertilizer Management Act 2012. Seoul, Korea (in Korean).Google Scholar
- MoE (Ministry of Environment). (2007a). Waste Control Act 2007. Seoul, Korea (in Korean).Google Scholar
- MoE (Ministry of Environment). (2007b). Soil Environment Conservation Act 2007. Seoul, Korea (in Korean).Google Scholar
- MoE (Ministry of Environment). (2011). Soil Environment Conservation Act 2011. Seoul, Korea (in Korean).Google Scholar
- Naidu, R., Megharaj, M., & Owens, G. (2003). Recyclable urban and industrial waste–benefits and problems in agricultural use. In S. Per Schjønning, Emholt & B. T. Christense (Eds.), Managing soil quality–challenges in modern agriculture. Wallingford, Oxon: CABI Publishing, CABI International.Google Scholar
- Nelson, D. W., Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In A. L. Page et al. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Chemical analysis (2nd edn. pp. 961–1110). Soil Sciences Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.Google Scholar
- Pritchard, D. L. (2005). Phosphorus Bioavailability from Land-applied Biosolids in South-western Australia. Muresk Institute: Curtin University of Technology, Sydney.Google Scholar
- Spicer, S. (2002). Fertilizers, manures or biosolids? Water Environment & Technology, 14, 32–35.Google Scholar
- Sumner, M. E., & Miller, W. P. (1996). Cation exchange capacity and exchange coefficients. In D. L. Sparks et al. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sciences Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.Google Scholar
- Van Erp, P. J., & Van Lune, P. (1991). Long-term heavy metal leaching from soils, sewage sludge and soil/sewage mixtures. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 706–711.Google Scholar